political party A group thatseeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with alabel by which they are known to the electorate.
Political parties are also organized at the grassroots level, with local committees mobilizing voters to support their candidates. During the latter part of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, politics in many urban areas was dominated by so-called political machines. These machines controlled city governments (and had influence over statewide elections) through their ability to mobilize immigrant and working-class voters. These organizations were hierarchical in nature and usually controlled by a so-called boss, who maintained power by dispensing patronage to supporters and the granting of municipal franchises and contracts to businessmen who were willing to kick back some of their profits to the organization. Perhaps the most notorious machine was Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party organization that was a major force in New York City politics for more than a century. William Marcy Tweed, who led the Hall from 1858 to 1871, epitomized the corrupt boss. Between 1865 and 1871, Tweed and his ring stole at least $50 million from the city (Allen, 1993).
These media-painted generalizations and societal representation of the youth such as lack of knowledge or experience, lackadaisical in terms of social and critical issues like in politics may be one of the reasons of the decreased political participati...
Term limits are the favored reform of the 90s. A total of 17 states have imposed term limits on state legislatures. The limits range from six to twelve years. Those that favor term limits believe that career politicians are so intent to stay in office that they are more likely to betray their constituents and bow to corruption. They argue that term limits encourages newcomers to take risks and push for ethics reform. Opponents of term limits argue that inexperienced legislators cannot act effectively in the public interest because they lack the knowledge and experience necessary to be effective. They maintain that term limits force out well-regarded politicians including many who have formed strong ties with their constituents and developed expertise in particular policy areas.
It is known as “realpolitik” and emphasis that the most important actor in global politics is the state, which pursues self-interests, security, and growing power (Ray and Kaarbo 3)....
Recent measures by French courts have basically removed all of the teeth from any regulatory prohibitions of kickbacks already in place, causing observers to conclude that "the courts have done the dirty work of the politicians." Bibliography lists seven sources.
The two most recent Presidential elections were quite close and exposed significant problems with the voting process. One overall concern is that voting is regulated in each state by a public officer who is partisan. There were many allegations of electoral irregularities in Florida in 2000 and Ohio in 2004. In both states, a Republican was responsible for administering the election. A bipartisan commission headed by former President Carter, a Democrat, and former Secretary of State James Baker, a Republican, issued a report with several recommendations - including a call for all voters to show photo IDs, paper trails for electronic voting machines, and a shift toward nonpartisan administration of elections. There appears to be little political interest in implementing these changes.
Although not provided for in the Constitution, political parties emerged in the years immediately following the establishment of the Republic. Initially, they were loose factions of officeholders, what Duverger (1964) would classify as “cadre parties,” and the development of political parties corresponded to the expansion of the franchise, as political parties evolved into mass parties that focused on organizing and mobilizing the expanded electorate. By the late 19th century, urban political party organizations, known as political machines and led by bosses, mobilized immigrant voters (by offering patronage and petty favors) and triggered a reform movement that aimed to reduce the influence of the bosses and party organizations. During the 20th century, as the welfare state emerged and as candidates turned to candidate-centered organizations to run their campaigns and consultants to manage them, the American political party has continued to evolve.
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Many authors on the long shelf of unsympathetic Clinton biographies have envisioned the thesis as evidence of Marxist or socialist views held by young Hillary — or conversely as proof of her political agnosticism, a lack of any ideology besides a brutal willingness to attack opponents and accumulate power in the Alinsky style.
Political parties perform a number of functions for the American political system. First, they provide symbols for partisan identification, which provides citizens with a basis for participation in politics (Rosenblum, 2008). Second, parties help socialize and educate voters by making them aware of the issues and by encouraging their participation within the established political processes, playing an important role in channeling social conflict. A third function of parties is the recruitment and nomination of political candidates; what distinguishes parties is this function of nominating candidates. By sponsoring candidates for public office, parties provide a form of quality control. As Janda, Berry, and Goldman (2009) noted, “Party insiders, the nominees’ peers, usually know the strengths and faults of potential candidates much better than average voters do and thus can judge their suitability for representing the party” (p. 231). Once they nominate candidates, parties mobilize voters to support those candidates. Parties also present proposals to voters during election campaigns and help facilitate cooperation between the members of the party in government. Our system of separation of powers within a federal state divides power; the parties, through the cooperation of party members in different branches of government and at different levels of government, bring some cohesion to the processes of governing.
This collection of almost 100 political science research paper topics and example papers on political science highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates that any student obtaining a degree in this field ought to have mastered for effectiveness. The purpose is to provide students in political science with an authoritative reference sources and sample research papers that will help their writing efforts with far more detailed information than short essays. See