3. Educate your students about plagiarism.Do not assume thatstudents know what plagiarism is, even if they nod their heads when youask them. Provide an explicit definition for them. For example,"Plagiarismis using another person's words or ideas without giving credit to theotherperson. When you use someone else's words, you must put quotation marksaround them or set them off in a block quotation and give the writer orspeaker credit by revealing thesourcein a citation. Even if you revise or paraphrase the words of someoneelseor just use their ideas, you still must give the author credit in acitation. Not giving due credit to the creator of an idea or writing isvery muchlike lying because without a citation, you are implying that the ideais your own."
Discussing with students why plagiarism is wrong may behelpful also. Clarifying for them that plagiarism is a combination of stealing(another'swords) and lying (claiming implicitly that the words are the student'sown) should be mentioned at some point, but should not be the wholeemphasisor you risk setting up a challenge for the rebels (those who like tobreakthe rules just for fun). Many statements on plagiarism alsoremindstudents that such cheating shows contempt for the professor, otherstudents,and the entire academic enterprise. Plagiarizers by theiractionsdeclare that they are not at the university to gain an education, butonlyto pretend to do so, and that they therefore intend to gain by fraudthecredentials (the degree) of an educated person.
The availability of textual material in electronic format hasmade plagiarismeasier than ever. Copying and pasting of paragraphs or evenentireessays now can be performed with just a few mouse clicks. Thestrategiesdiscussed here can be used to combat what some believe is an increasingamount of plagiarism on research papers and other student writing. Byemploying these strategies,you can help encourage students to value the assignment and to do theirown work.
Perhaps the most effective discussion will ask the students tothinkabout who is really being cheated when someone plagiarizes. Copyingpapers or even parts of papers short circuits a number of learningexperiencesand opportunities for the development of skills: actually doing theworkof the research paper rather than counterfeiting it gives the studentnotonly knowledge of the subject and insights into the world ofinformationand controversy, but improves research skills, thinking and analyzing,organizing, writing, planning and time management, and evenmeticulousness(those picky citation styles actually help improve one's attention todetail). All this is missed when the paper is faked, and it is these missedskillswhich will be of high value in the working world. A degreewill helpstudents get a first job, but performance--using the skills developedbydoing just such assignments as research papers--will be required forpromotion.
5. Make the penalties clear. If aninstitutional policy exists,quote it in your syllabus. If you have your own policy, specify thepenaltiesinvolved. For example, "Cheating on a paper will result in an F on thatpaper with no possibility of a makeup. A second act of cheating willresultin an F in the course regardless of the student's gradeotherwise." Ifyou teach at a university where the penalty for plagiarism is dismissalfrom the university or being reported to the Academic Dean or Dean ofStudents,you should make that clear as well. Even the penalties can bepresentedin a positive light. Penalties exist to reassure honeststudentsthat their efforts are respected and valued, so much so that those whowould escape the work by fakery will be punished substantially. Note:There are always a few students who will be caught plagiarizing andthen claim that no one cared or told them. When you point to thesection in your syllabus, they will say, "I thought it was a genericsyllabus so I didn't read it." The better idea, then, is to read theappropriate places from the syllabus to the class at the first meeting.
7. Require most references to be up-to-date.Many of the freeterm papers online (and many of the ones for sale) are quite old, withcorrespondingly old references. If you require all research material tobe, say, less than five years old, you will automatically eliminatethousandsof online papers. Such a recent date restriction is notusually workablefor some subjects, such as history or English literature, but you canalwaysrequire a few sources of recent date. (But, as mentioned above, be onthe alert for citation upgrading, where the date of publication ischanged from an older date to a recent one.)
The biggest fear any student has is of plagiarism. But, students using our services trust us, and we aim to maintain their trust. We write up authentic and original papers every time. Everything you read in your paper is written from scratch. PapersHelm is more inclined towards using Copyscape over Turnitin. You might wonder why? Though Turnitin is used to check the legitimacy of academic papers, it has a certain flaw in its system. Once you upload a paper on Turnitin, it stores the paper in its database. Hence, uploading the same file again is considered duplicate content. We at PapersHelm are inclined to help make our customers feel secure while using our services; hence, we guarantee quality, authentic paper every time!
8. Require a metalearning essay. On the dayyou collect the papers,have students write an in-class essay about what they learned from theassignment. What problems did they face and how did they overcome them?What research strategy did they follow? Where did they locatemostof their sources? What is the most important thing they learned frominvestigatingthis subject? For most students, who actually did theresearch paper,this assignment will help them think about their own learning. It alsoprovides you with information about the students' knowledge of theirpapersand it gives you a writing sample to compare with the papers. If astudent'sknowledge of the paper and its process seems modest or if the in-classessay quality diverges strikingly from the writing ability shown in thepaper, further investigation is probably warranted.
Religious Issues The Constitution made no reference to religious liberties of United States citizens during ratification of states; the Bill of Rights does address religious freedom but over the past decade the conflict betw...