The use of gray water at decentralized sites (see definition) for landscape irrigation and toilet flushing reduces the amount of potable water distributed to these sites, the amount of fertilizer needed, and the amount of wastewater generated, transported, and treated at wastewater treatment facilities. In other words, water reuse saves water, energy, and money. Decentralized water reuse systems are being used more in the arid west where long term drought conditions exist. Successful gray water systems have been operating for many years,. They can meet up to 50% of a property's water needs by supplying water for landscaping. Recycling gray water saves fresh potable water for other uses, reduces the volume of wastewater going to septic systems and wastewater treatment plants, and increases infrastructure capacity for new users.
This paper provides a broad overview of the monitoring and sampling procedures that can beused for qualitative and quantitative monitoring of oil contamination. While qualitative analysescan confirm the source of oil contamination, monitoring programmes are often concerned withthe quantitative changes in hydrocarbon levels over time. Guidance on analytical best practiceis given and common terminology is explained. However, the techniques and observationsrequired to monitor specific ecological or biological effects and to monitor contaminants in theair are beyond the scope of this paper.
Engineer solutions that protect and engage communities. E-waste operations should implement protective and exposure-reduction efforts for workers and their entire communities. Additionally, the long-term disposal of hazardous parts and equipment that cannot be reused must be addressed to avoid legacy contamination and to protect communities. Solving the e-waste problem may also entail fostering EEE redesigns to lengthen product life cycles.
Given its large spatial variability, assessing exposure to UF particles among participants in cohort studies has been challenging. Therefore, very few studies have measured or estimated long-term exposures to UFs at a fine enough spatial gradient to examine its impact on health. As an alternative, several studies have attempted to estimate the effects of exposure to traffic, often a major source of UFs, using metrics such as nitrogen dioxide, distance to major roadways, and/or local traffic density (). In general, within the first 250 m or so of a major roadway, UFs may be highly correlated with other pollutants such as black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. However, the relation between UFs and these other pollutants, especially away from major roadways, is not precise and the correlations may be fairly low (; ).
Address protection of e-waste workers. Prevention and intervention strategies related to e-waste contamination must recognize that impoverished people will continue, at least in the short term, to work informally with e-waste recycling. The economic gain derived from the great demand for raw materials such as copper is too powerful to expect otherwise.
Bali Declaration. Adopted in 2008, the Bali Declaration on Waste Management for Human Health and Livelihood affirmed that poorly managed waste may have serious consequences for the environment, human health, and sustainable livelihood. It called for strengthened political cooperation to increase capacity building and to promote and enhance public and private investment for safe and environmentally careful waste management technology ().
Because of the unique ways in which children interact with the environment, they are likely to receive bigger doses of toxicants, relative to their size, than adults. Diet is an important exposure source, and children eat more food and drink more water per pound of body weight than do adults (). Breast milk from mothers at e-waste sites indicates elevated exposure to toxicants, such as dioxin, compared with milk from mothers at a reference site (; ). Frequent hand-to-mouth behavior in younger children can increase exposure to chemicals from dust or play items (). Chemicals can accumulate in children’s bodies because their immature systems are unable to process and excrete some toxic materials effectually ().
This work cites numerous Russian sources not usually referred to by Western writers on the subject) which points out that, despite moves to increase re-injection and shipment ashore for disposal, up to 80 per cent of drilling wastes and chemicals still enter the sea, one way or another:
Produced, ballast and injection waters, as well as drilling cuttings and fluids polluted by hundreds of different chemicals, often go directly overboard at the production site.
While water recycling is a sustainable approach and can be cost-effective in the long term, the treatment of wastewater for reuse and the installation of distribution systems at centralized facilities can be initially expensive compared to such water supply alternatives as imported water, ground water, or the use of gray water onsite from homes. Institutional barriers, as well as varying agency priorities and public misperception, can make it difficult to implement water recycling projects. Finally, early in the planning process, agencies must reach out to the public to address any concerns and to keep the public informed and involved in the planning process.
Electronic product innovations satisfy many needs, including the desire of people to stay connected around the globe. As new products are continually introduced into the marketplace, consumers replace existing electronic products that are damaged or simply outdated. The resulting mass of electronic products discarded is becoming the fastest-growing waste stream in the world (), leading to polluted environments. E-waste refers to all types of electrical or electronic equipment (EEE) and its parts that have been discarded without intention for reuse by the owner . Global e-waste generation was estimated to be 41.8 million tonnes in 2014 and may increase to 65.4 million tonnes by 2017 ().
Basel Convention. Negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme and entered into force in 1992, the convention regulates the transboundary movement and disposal of hazardous and other wastes. Its overarching objective is to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes (). Under the Basel terms, based on the concept of prior informed consent, an export may proceed only with written consent by the country of import. However, the terms are difficult to monitor because reliable data are not available regarding the amount of exported EEE that is accurately classified as e-waste.
Waste can be divided into consumer and industrial waste. The systems involved in recycling these waste products are different because of the nature of the refuse. Consumer waste collection is divided into three broad spectra, drop-off centers where consumer takes the recyclates to a collection point or the reprocessing company; a buy- back centre that redeems the recyclates for recycling and reselling; roadside/ curbside collection that involves the collection of recyclable refuse by a collection vehicle. Industrial waste recycling mechanisms are regulated by local and international law and profoundly motivated by the cost-benefits that are achieved.