Wi-Fi, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) is a trademark that belongs to the Wi-Fi Alliance. It is name commonly used for the standard of wireless (radio) connection that integrates several protocols and is based on a family of IEEE 802.11 standards (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers is an international organization dedicated to the development of standards in electronic technology). The most famous and the most common today is IEEE 802.11g protocol, which determines the operation of wireless networks.
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The history of Wi-Fi starts from mid-1990s. The technology of information transmission by radio has been developed and applied mainly in local networks of large corporations and firms in Silicon Valley, USA. Contact with a mobile subscriber (usually it was a company employee with a laptop equipped with a wireless network adapter) was organized through WAPs that were connected to a wired infrastructure. Thus, in the reach radius of each such point (a few tens of meters) could be up to 20 subscribers using the network resources simultaneously. Originally, the term «Wi-Fi» only used to refer to technology, which provides communication in the 2.4 GHz and runs on the IEEE 802.11b standard (baud rate – up to 11 Mbit / s). Currently, however, the term is increasingly used for other wireless LAN technologies. The most significant among them are the IEEE 802.11a and 802.11g (speed is up to 54 Mbit / s, frequency ranges, respectively, 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz).
Students, preparing their research proposal on the Wi-Fi, should use free example research topics on wifi security, which allow them to understand that 802.11b standard was developed in the late 90s and finally approved in early 1999. In 2000, there began to appear the first devices to transfer data based on it. Wi-Fi devices were intended for corporate users to replace traditional cable networks. For wired networks need careful design of network topology and manually laying many hundreds of meters of cable, sometimes in unexpected places. To organize the same wireless network, you only need to install one or more office base stations (central transceiver with an antenna connected to the external network or server) and insert a network adapter with antenna into every computer. Then computers can be moved arbitrarily, and even moving to a new office becomes possible keeping once created network.
Wireless telephone technology, wireless access, broadband, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, Long Term Evolution, Ultra-Mobile Broadband, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Multiple Input-Multiple Output, 3GPP, 3GPP2
a. Laptops, PDA's and fixed broadband services: The most intuitive set of services that can be provided are related to all the fixed wired DSL internet services that we have today, except that they shall be provided wireless and shall support mobility. Also with the strong QoS support in these technologies, the operators shall be allowed to plan business strategies on various sectors based on the average throughputs of that sector.
By using free sample research paper topics on WIMAX you will find out that many telecommunications companies are making big bets on the use of WiMAX for high-speed communications services and there are several reasons for that. First, a family of 802.16 standards is more cost effective (compared to wired technology), they can not only provide network access to new customers, but also expand the range of services and cover the new remote areas. Secondly, wireless technology is easier to use than traditional wire channels.
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Accessed 17th September 2011. 6 Batteries Charge Quickly and Retain Capacity, Thanks to New Structure, Science Daily:
Accessed 17th September 2011. 7 Electric Vehicle Charging Station Installations to Reach 7.7 Million Worldwide by 2017, Driven by Rapidly Falling Prices, Navigant Research:
Accessed 31st December 2017. 8 Japanese researchers develop EV motor not reliant on rare earth metals, PhysOrg:
Accessed 17th September 2011. 9 The robot revolution: Driverless trucks and voice-activated pets could be commonplace by 2019, Daily Mail:
Accessed 17th September 2011. 10 Sources of World's CO2 Emissions, Public Broadcasting Service:
Accessed 17th September 2011. 11 Intel Expects to Launch 10nm Chips in 2017, WCCF Tech:
Accessed 15th February 2015. 12 Number of internet-connected video devices on the planet to exceed global population by 2017: IHS, Fox Media:
Accessed 10th October 2013. 13 Razor-thin TV you can wear as a T-shirt, Daily Mail:
Accessed 31st Dec 2008. 14 ‘Paper Computer’ Brings New Dimension to Smartphones, The Epoch Times:
Accessed 1st January 2018. 15 "Researchers hope the system will be commercially available within 4 years."
See Under the skin, a tiny laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne:
Accessed 21st March 2013.16 See . 17 "It is hoped that large scale trials can now begin so the treatment could be offered routinely on the NHS within five years."
See New treatment for prostate cancer gives 'perfect results' for nine in ten men: research, The Telegraph:
Accessed 1st January 2018. 18 Targeted therapy gives hope to cancer patients, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (UCLH):
Accessed 25th August 2012. ⇡
In addition there is some information offered as to some current technological decisions as they relate to the European communities such as issues surrounding other technological items that are prevalent in the United States.
The evolution of wireless telephone technologies can be discretely grouped into various generations based on the level of maturity of the underlying technology. The classification into generations is not standardized on any given metrics or parameters and as such does not represent a strict demarcation. However, it represents a perspective which is commonly agreed upon, both by industry and academia, and hence conceived to be an unwritten standard. At this time, there are two major efforts towards the development of the next generation - "4G" wireless access technology. The 3GPP or 3rd Generation Partnership project (brand named as Long Term Evolution) is the name of the 4G efforts being undertaken in Europe and the 3GPP2 or 3rd Generation Partnership project 2 (brand named as Ultra Mobile Broadband) is the 4G effort of North America and parts of Asia. This survey tries to present an evolutionary and objective sketch to the development efforts of these technologies that mark the future of wide area broadband wireless access technologies.
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