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Chicago's 1933 world's fair set a new direction for international expositions. Earlier fairs had exhibited technological advances, but Chicago's fair organizers used the very idea of progress to buoy national optimism during the Depression's darkest years. Orchestrated by business leaders and engineers, almost all former military men, the fair reflected a business-military-engineering model that envisioned a promising future through science and technology's application to everyday life. But not everyone at Chicago's 1933 exposition had abandoned notions of progress that entailed social justice and equality, recognition of ethnicity and gender, and personal freedom and expression. The fair's motto, "Science Finds, Industry Applies, Man Conforms," was challenged by iconoclasts such as Sally Rand, whose provocative fan dance became a persistent symbol of the fair, as well as a handful of others, including African Americans, ethnic populations and foreign nationals, groups of working women, and even well-heeled socialites. Cheryl R. Ganz offers the stories of fair planners and participants who showcased education, industry, and entertainment to sell optimism during the depths of the Great Depression. This engaging history also features eighty-six photographs--nearly half of which are full color--of key locations, exhibits, and people, as well as authentic ticket stubs, postcards, pamphlets, posters, and other items.
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Following an introduction by renowned Lincoln scholar Harold Holzer, nine new essays explore the end of the Civil War, Lincoln’s death, and the start of the tentative peace in 1865. Michael Vorenberg discusses how Lincoln shepherded through the House of Representatives the resolution sending the Thirteenth Amendment to the states for ratification, John F. Marszalek and Michael B. Ballard examine the partnership of Lincoln’s war management and General Ulysses S. Grant’s crucial last thrusts against Robert E. Lee, and Richard Striner recounts how Lincoln faced down Confederate emissaries who proposed immediate armistice if Lincoln were to reverse the Emancipation Proclamation. Ronald C. White Jr. offers a fresh look at Lincoln’s second inaugural address, and Richard Wightman Fox provides a vivid narrative of Lincoln’s dramatic walk through Richmond after the Confederates abandoned their capital.
Watermarks identify paper as the product of a particular maker or mill at a particular place and time. Watermarks were short-lived. Exposed to water and pulp, a mould might last a year, a watermark half that. There is no comprehensive catalog of them. But for the researcher hoping to date a manuscript, print, or map, watermarks offer a starting point and sometimes an answer.
American Paper and Pulp Association.
1965. The Dictionary of Paper, including pulp, paperboard, paper properties and related papermaking terms. 3rd ed. New York.
Buy custom watermarked paper & stationery in packs or in bulk at The Paper Mill You can also make your own date coded watermarks for security that allow .
John Bidwell, the Astor Curator of Printed Books and Bindings at the Morgan Library & Museum, comments that it was an “inspired idea to put Gravell’s watermarks on the web in easily searchable form. Americanists will be particularly glad to know about Gravell and Miller’s watermarks, which will help them to date and localize manuscripts, printed books, and art on paper.”
The Gravell archive is a work in progress, a story of innovation building on innovation, back to the day when a thirteenth-century papermaker first attached a bit of wire to his mould.