This classification was developed by Greenpeace and TFT in collaboration with the palm oil companies Golden Agri-Resources Limited (GAR) and PT SMART Tbk (SMART) in Indonesia. The approach has since been adopted by Asia Pulp and Paper (APP) and other palm oil companies. However, the HCS approach has also been taken up in Papua New Guinea and Liberia, and is being trialed in other countries. While carbon values for each category will differ by country, the 6-part classification system for vegetation cover developed for Indonesia can be applied in all humid tropical regions. HCS does not currently take into account peat lands, which should be covered by a separate no-peat land development commitment. Also, the HCS assessment is not sufficiently accurate to be used for carbon accounting, since it only measures trees of over 5 cm diameter, and therefore underestimates Above Ground Biomass, and does not take into account Below Ground Biomass.
The genesis of this paper was in the recognition of a formal equivalence between the Cox–Ross–Rubinstein binomial model for pricing derivatives (1979) and the canonical origin of mathematical probability in the Pascal and Fermat solution to the Problem of Points (1654). The structural similarity is obvious and immediately raises the question of how probability was conceived in the seventeenth century. This question is informed by the fact that the probabilities in the Cox–Ross–Rubinstein model are, today, understood in terms of Kolmogorov’s measure theoretic probability, and not in terms of objective (frequentist) or subjective (Bayesian) probability. Exploring the scholarship, notably Sylla, Bellhouse, Franklin Kaye and Hadden, we understand that, before Montmort and de Moivre, probability was based on Aristotelian ethics and the requirement to maintain equality in exchange—reciprocity—in order to promote social cohesion. In effect, mathematical probability originates in a synthesis of Fibonacci’s commercial mathematics and Scholastic analysis of exchange.
It is easier to establish traceability for solid wood products than for paper-based products. Paper products are manufactured in pulp mills that typically draw wood from many sources. In the most complex cases, a network of dealers buying wood from many different loggers, landowners and sawmills may supply a pulp mill (Box 1 below). In a sawmill, logs usually lose their link to individual landowners in a sorting yard in the same way an agricultural business would combine grain from individual farmers in a common silo. The wood collected from sawmills – often chips that are by-products of solid-wood products manufacturing – further lose their individual identity during the paper making process.
There is great variability in supply chains depending on the country, region, or local circumstances. In the most complicated cases, a sawmill, pulp mill and engineered wood plant are fed by a network of product flows and business relationships. Mills frequently incorporate wood from various sources involving a large number of actors. For instance, a pulp mill in the Eastern United States that produces 860,000 tons (Mt) of paperboard per year uses 2,720,000 tons of wood chips. The mill procures these chips directly from 60-70 landowners, some 600 suppliers, 120 sawmills and 10 shipping operations (MeadWestvaco estimates for 2006).
3M pulp, paper and packaging suppliers must ensure that wood or plant-based fiber is legally harvested, sourced, transported and exported from its country of origin. Fiber must be traceable back to the source of harvest.
The paper industry uses both fresh and recovered fibers as raw materials. Fresh fibers, or wood, are sourced from natural forests and tree plantations. Fresh material is broken down into wood chips and converted to pulp in mechanical or chemical processes. Fiber can also be recovered as by-products in industrial processes or after consumer use. By-products, known as post-industrial, pre-consumer materials, include sawmill residue, residue from the making of wood pulp, and trees that are too small or crooked to be cut into lumber. Post-consumer materials are collected from end consumers after paper-based products are discarded. For an overview of terms and concepts used in this chapter, see also Box 17
Wood is a composite material made of cellulose fibers, bonded and made rigid by lignin. To make paper, mechanical and chemical processes are used to separate the cellulose fibers from lignin and other compounds. Wood pulp intended for white paper products undergoes an additional bleaching process to remove residual lignin.
* Some of the products covered include: fuel wood, wood in the rough, sawn wood, veneers, particleboard, fiberboard, plywood, frames, flooring, boxes, crates, caskets, barrels, pulp and paper, furniture, prefabricated buildings and others. The Regulation does not cover timber products or components of timber or timber products that have completed their lifecycle and would otherwise be disposed of as waste. It also excludes material used exclusively as packaging to support, protect or carry another product being placed on the market.
^ Risk assessment can be conducted through a) where the imported product is certified under Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) or Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) standards; b) a (CSG) where one is available, or c) against certain regulated risk factors.
Recycled fiber: Fibers that have been recovered from pre- or post-consumer paper or paper-board products, sorted, re-pulped, and are available for use in paper products with recycled content.
Fiber characteristics depend on the type of tree and the growing conditions (Paper on Web 2014). When fibers from recovered paper are mechanically re-pulped, the structure and texture of the end product are affected.
3M suppliers need to maintain records including genus, species and country of origin of the wood or plant-based fiber, and third-party certifications of materials and operations in the supply chain. 3M suppliers are required to have policies and due systems for sourcing pulp and paper and should require their suppliers to do the same. 3M will continue to work with suppliers through trainings and direct communication to help suppliers understand requirements and concepts in the policy.
Besides wood, energy remains the most expensive part of the manufacturing process for the pulp and paper industry. While energy efficiency has improved dramatically in the last few decades, the manufacturing processes of many products still consume considerable amounts of energy. Energy reduction is of strong interest to the forest products industry.
Originally a term applied to cotton-content paper used for printing bonds and legal documents, and distinguished by strength, performance, and durability. Bond paper may now be made from either cotton, chemical wood pulp, or a combination of the two. Today, writing, digital, and cut-size papers are often identified with the bond scale.