In , column 2 shows the effect of new product varieties among familiar brands, and column 3 reveals new product varieties among non-familiar brands. These two columns have no control variables when computing beta coefficients, while physical, cognitive and economic variables have been considered control variables to determine loyalty effects. It has also been observed during the study that SS and MS malls function within budget constraints and often restrain their expenditure on ambience building, and thus the flow of shoppers remains relatively low as compared to LS and XLS malls. Beta-coefficient results explain that variety-seeking behaviour among non-familiar brands during the festive seasons is higher for SS and MS malls (64.61 and 79.21 per cent, respectively), while customers prefer new products among the known brands in the LS and XLS malls (74.11 and 91.77 per cent, respectively). Competitive sales promotion strategies such as free trials, hands-on experience and simulations in retail stores in malls also induce shoppers to seek variety products. However, customer loyalty is higher for LS and XLS malls, which have good ambience, retail stores of exclusive brands and specific class of shoppers, while functional variables such as price and sales promotions influence shopper loyalty in SS and MS malls. These results are consistent with Hypothesis 3, indicating that competitive sales promotions of retail stores in shopping malls induce variety-seeking behaviour and build store loyalty among shoppers.
Shopping malls are dynamic business centres that attract a large section of urban customers to experience the pleasure of modern shopping. A categorically planned assortment of stores in a mall would provide diversity and arousal, and would encourage a propensity to shop around the mall. Accordingly, mall managers may develop appropriate tenancy policies for retailing firms with regard to the socio-demographic factors of customers in order to satisfy different segments. An appropriate mix of anchor tenants and new age tenants who have different target groups would better attract customers to shopping malls, and such an assortment of stores could coexist in a shopping mall successfully without any conflict of interest. Prospective shopping malls should be able to nurture an environment conducive to the development of all components in the system for successful positioning of malls.
The development of shopping malls and leisure facility centres in Mexico needs to be evaluated from the perspectives of economic, operational and managerial efficiency. The economic relationship concerns the degree of dependency between the attractiveness of shopping malls and shoppers’ personality traits in reference to market share, returns on investment and profitability (). Two types of shopping centre model are observed in the emerging real estate markets in developing countries, which are characterised by their ultimate relationship with the physical shopping centre on whose web site they reside (; ). The underlying success factors of planned, centrally managed and large shopping malls in the retailing sector rotates around customer satisfaction in reference to selection, atmosphere, convenience, salespeople, refreshments, location, promotional activities and merchandising policy (). It is observed that agglomerations of small stores selling similar ranges of goods around the shopping malls also cause congestion, and often divert attraction of price-sensitive shoppers towards unfamiliar brands. Although such agglomerations of retailing activity are not unique to Mexico, as there are market places accommodating large numbers of small retail outlets, the development is arguably unusual in the ways that the number of agglomerations continues to grow and these new agglomerations are dealing in a wide range of goods including electronic gadgets (for example, ). Thus, Hypothesis 1a is framed as follows:
It is found that assortment of stores, mall environment and shopping involvement have a differential influence on excitement and desire to stay in malls, which in turn are found to influence patronage intentions and shopping desire in malls (). However, it is evident from some research studies that conventional retailers in and around the mall and new age tenants have different target groups to serve, small traditional retailers possibly coexist around large shopping malls. Contemporary retailers seem not to have evolved enough to replace conventional retailers around their marketplace (). In fact, the presence of small retailers’ traditional marketplaces, such as Pericoapa in the study region in Mexico, has driven an alternative option for mall managers to rejuvenate the shopping attractions as well as allow a variety of shops in the malls. The retailing territories in Mexico are complex, comprising the distinct habitation pattern, transit system and state-licensed periodic street markets bridging gaps in public spaces. Such urban planning allows for retailing integration and collective behaviour of consumers in street markets and shopping malls (for example, ). Small retail stores outside the large shopping malls display ethnic products that are of low price and high appeal. Shoppers visiting large malls choose to shop either in ethnic shops or for mainstream store brands located inside the malls. Such shopping behaviour is observed when ethnic economies and mainstream businesses, both of which have a strong presence in large shopping malls, compete against each other (). Accordingly, Hypothesis 1(b) may be derived as follows:
Agglomeration of small retail stores around large shopping malls deviates consumer shopping focus from stores inside the mall, as customers experience ethnic ambience and economic gain in buying from small retailers.
The perspectives of shopping mall ambience and shopping satisfaction effectively become a measure of retail performance, customer attraction and propensity to shop for urban shoppers. This tendency of shoppers demands change in the strategy of mall management and retailing by offering more recreational infrastructure, extended working hours, place for demonstrations and consumer education on the innovative and high-technology products and services. This study discusses the impact of growing congestion of shopping malls in urban areas of Mexico on shopping convenience and shopping behaviour with regard to personality traits of shoppers affecting the preferences for shopping malls concerning store assortment, convenience, distance to malls, economic advantage and leisure facilities. The results of the study reveal that the ambience of shopping malls and assortment of stores attracts higher customer traffic to the malls. However, an agglomeration of small retail stores around LS malls in a traditional style deviate consumers’ shopping focus from stores inside the mall, as they obtain an ethnic ambience and economic gains in buying from small retailers. It was found during this study that urban shoppers visit shopping malls as leisure centres to relax, spending long hours and tending to shop in response to various sales promotions used by different stores.
Managers of retail firms must understand that shopping behaviour among customers is governed by various factors such as credit availability and customer services offered in the shopping mall. Factors that successfully connect various customer groups with shopping interests continue to build strength in retail brands, stores and malls. At the retail point-of-purchase convergence of customer loyalty, value for money and competitive product advantages drive loyalty to retail stores. Most successful retail brand stores pass through certain recognisable stages that affect customer decisions on marketing factors such as pricing, product identity, and sales and distribution networks.
In view of growing competition among retailers and increasing market congestion in urban areas, retailing firms need to adapt to a dynamic strategy to achieve success in the business. Retailers located in LS and XLS malls where intensity of competition is higher should lure customers into non-price promotions and develop a niche of customers to build brand loyalty. If a retailing firm chooses to compete on price, complex pricing actions, cutting of prices in certain channels, or introduction of new products or flanking brands strategies may be used, which allows the firm to selectively target only those segments of customers who are on the verge of switching brands or retail outlets. Such strategies may be implemented in specific malls. The promotional effects generated from various promotional tools may be monitored for longer periods of time and measured with regard to achieving the long-term goals of retail firms. In addition, variability of promotional response in different retail markets, channels and outlets should be analysed to make required modifications in the process of delivery of promotional programmes to customers. Firms should focus on providing information about retailers’ offers in advance for the customers who make their purchase decisions before mall visits. However, social and recreational appeals for attracting consumers to malls also act as driving factors in augmenting customer traffic to shopping malls.
It is also observed from the results of that the attractive ambience in the XLS malls motivates shoppers to stay for long hours in the mall (92.77 per cent) and encourage them towards casual shopping. LS malls also attract customers to stay for reasonably longer times (61.13 per cent) as compared to MS and SS malls. The results also reveal that seasonality in shopping stimulates visits to shopping malls with a small time lag of approximately 4 weeks, or 28 days. However, customers do not consider the distance factor when visiting malls. These results confirm Hypothesis 2b of the study.
The discussions in the study divulge that shopping arousal is largely driven by mall attractions, inter-personal influences, sales promotions and comparative gains among urban shoppers. The major factors that affect shopping arousal among urban shoppers concern recreational facilities, location of the mall, ambience and store attractiveness with regard to products and services, brand value and price. Similar to many other empirical studies, this research might also have some limitations with regard to sampling, data collection and generalisation of the findings. The samples drawn for this study may not be enough to generalise the study results. However, the results of this study may indicate a similar pattern of shopping behaviour of urban consumers in shopping malls with regard to other Latin American markets.
It is observed from the results that shoppers spend more money on each visit to the XLS malls owing to the planned shopping agenda without higher perceived risk. Inclination towards buying familiar brands in large shopping malls also helps customers to purchase goods of higher value as compared to other categories of shopping malls. The adjusted R̄2 indicates that overall changes in the customer value are observed to be 67.53 per cent in SS malls, 55.86 per cent in MS malls, 79.86 per cent in LS malls and 66.42 per cent in XLS malls during different shopping seasons. Accordingly, it is found that there is a pattern of shopping in malls in synchronisation with the arousal–buying relationship during the shopping life cycle. Hence, the findings discussed above are consistent with Hypotheses 1c and 2a.