The primary outcome was the difference between the study groups with respect to the change in the score on the physical-function scale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) from baseline to 6 months after randomization. WOMAC scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating worse physical function. The original statistical-analysis plan referred to the primary outcome as the WOMAC function score at 6 months, with adjustment for the baseline score. However, since the change in the WOMAC physical-function score is a standard outcome in assessing interventions for knee osteoarthritis and is more easily interpreted than the raw score at 6 months adjusted for the baseline score, we revised the primary outcome before analyzing the trial data. We specified 6 months as the time for assessment of the primary outcome because the clinical response to treatment is apparent by this time. We added a 12-month assessment to determine whether the response was stable.
Mean age at recruitment was 56.6 years (). Most of the study subjects participated in physical activity: 54.3% participated in sports, 68.0% cycled, 73.5% gardened, and 93.0% walked. Participation in all physical activities was lower among those who died during follow-up than in the entire cohort (), with the lowest participation among those who died from respiratory disease and diabetes (). The mean concentration of NO2 at residence was 16.9 ± 5.2 μg/m3 for the cohort and 17.9 ± 5.7 μg/m3 for the subjects who died during follow-up ().
Without exception, the physical therapist is responsible for evaluating the patient, setting patient goals, establishing a plan of care, and determining whether it is appropriate for the patient to receive the services of a physical therapist assistant based on the competencies of the physical therapist assistant and the needs of the patient.
Health activity habits can be built by Physical education and sport. This extends the impact of physical education beyond the schoolyard and highlights the potential impact of physical education on public health. Sports is vital in the very young lives of every student and lives of your kids for it gives them a lot of things to learn about life aside from entertainment and cool moments with friends.
The paper provides background information on steroids, how they are ingested, the extent to which they can be considered addictive, the side-effects they cause, and their physiological and psychological impacts.
Their work doesn’t consist of only working with injured patients; sports physical therapists must come up with care plans, fill out paper work, and check in with their patient’s doctors for status updates....
The Report from the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace states that young people can benefit from physical activity as it contributes to developing healthy bones, efficient heart and lung function as well as improved motor skills and cognitive function. Physical activity can help to prevent hip fractures among women and reduce the effects of osteoporosis. Remaining physically active can enhance functional capacity among older people, and can help to maintain quality of life and independence.
Declining rates of physical activity () have given rise to population-level health initiatives including promotion of active transport in cities, encouraging a shift from car use to cycling and walking (). These initiatives are also highly relevant as a solution to other urban challenges such as traffic congestion, air pollution, and greenhouse-gas emission problems in major cities. One of the major challenges to active transport initiatives and other efforts to promote exercise is the trade-off between the health benefits of increased physical activity and potential harms due to amplified exposure to air pollution during outdoor physical activity in urban areas (, , ; ). Increased respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung due to higher minute ventilation during physical exercise may amplify harmful effects of air pollution, even in young and healthy individuals (; ). In controlled, real-life exposure studies, reduced lung function has been reported in association with walking on a busy street in London (; ), running near heavy traffic close to major highway (), cycling during rush hour on a heavy-traffic route (), or hiking on high air pollution days (). Similarly, exposure to air pollution and exercise in a controlled setting was reported to alter markers of vascular impairment, arterial stiffness, and vascular reactivity and to reduce exercise performance (; ; ; ) and alter immune function (). These studies documented evidence of acute adverse health effects of short-duration exposures to high levels of air pollution during exercise, which seem to be transient and reversible after exercise, at least in young healthy individuals.
A number of factors influence the way in which sport and physical activity impacts on health in different populations. Sport and physical activity in itself may not directly lead to benefits but, in combination with other factors, can promote healthy lifestyles. There is evidence to suggest that changes in the environment can have a significant impact on opportunities for participation and in addition, the conditions under which the activity is taking place can heavily impact on health outcomes. Elements that may be determinants on health include nutrition, intensity and type of physical activity, appropriate footwear and clothing, climate, injury, stress levels and sleep patterns.
Sport and physical activity can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of people in developing countries. Exercise, physical activity and sport have long been used in the treatment and rehabilitation of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Physical activity for individuals is a strong means for the prevention of diseases and for nations is a cost-effective method to improve public health across populations.
The law requires the patient to sign the Notice of Advice form if treatment will be provided without a referral, and the physical therapist is responsible for ensuring that the patient has signed.
Physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by a self-administered, interviewer-checked questionnaire in which leisure time and transport-related (e.g., to and from work, shopping) physical activity was reported as hours per week spent on sports, cycling, gardening, walking, housework (cleaning, shopping), and “do-it-yourself” activities (e.g., house repair). Data were collected separately for winter and summer of the previous year, and the two values were averaged, so that being active implies at least half an hour spent on a specific activity per week. The physical activity questions have been validated in two studies that found high correlation between self-reported physical activity estimates with the accelerometer measurements of total metabolic equivalent in 182 subjects () and with combined heart rate and movement sensing measurements in 1,941 subjects (). We focused in this study on sports, cycling, and gardening, which were previously associated with lower mortality in the same cohort (), and additionally walking at least half an hour per week, which is relevant as an outdoor physical activity pertinent to exposure to air pollution. A previous analysis of data from the cohort indicated that accounting for the amount of physical activity did not substantially alter associations with mortality when activity was dichotomized as any participation versus none (). Therefore, our main analyses focused on the estimated effect of participation (yes/no) in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking on mortality, whereas associations with the amount of cycling (categorized as does not cycle, 0.5–4 hr/week, or > 4 hr/week) were estimated in sensitivity analyses.