As a serious artist andprintmaker, he knew that the paper, as well as the ink colors, couldchange the look and mood of a picture, and he liked toexperiment.
The symbol used for the Lydgate paper watermarks is a fairlycommon one, a shield or cup shape containing three connected fleur-de-lissymbols, with a series of floral shapes above and a stylized Gothic letter"T" below. The most obvious differences between Type 1 and Type 2 arefound in the lower fleur-de-lis and in the letter "T"; in the Type 1watermark the vertical leaf of the fleur-de-lis points somewhat to the rightwhile in Type two it points somewhat to the left; letter "T" isthicker in Type 2; and the flourishes on the end of the "T" crossstroke differ markedly between Type 1 and Type 2.
With the Customark chemical watermark process, unmarked paper can be made in advance and stored. When an order is received, the watermark design is produced by stamping the pre-made papers and impregnating them with the patented compound under heat and pressure. While the manufacturer considers the resulting mark to be relatively inert . The marks in naturally aged samples are beginning to disappear into the surrounding paper structure. This phenomenon prompted interest in chemical watermarking and resulted in this investigation into some of the characteristics of modern chemical watermarks for the benefit of conservators.
The high cost, inconvenience, and difficulty of producing intricate designs in conventionally manufactured wire or chiaroscuro watermarks were the impetus behind the invention of a simulated watermark in the commercial papermaking industry. The process of chemically watermarking paper allows for a greater diversity of applications at significantly lower cost. cites the costs and limits a0111s being approximately $300 for a dandy roll with a minimum order of 200,000 papers (400 reams) versus $20 for a chemical watermark pattern and a minimum order of 12,000 papers (24 reams).
CHEMICAL WATERMARKING is available under trade names such as Customark, Shadowmark, and Trustmark. Trustmark has a tagging material as a security feature that is mixed in the chemical watermark and changes color when exposed to chemical bleaches . Three chemically watermarked papers were supplied by the Fox River Paper Company for the purpose of experimentation. They were:
THE TECHNOLOGY of chemically watermarking paper is considered a trade secret because it is owned and leased solely by the Customark Corporation. When patenting a new process or discovery, companies often protect themselves by listing multiple formulas and a variety of possible materials in a range of different combinations. Therefore, it is impossible to determine with certainty directly from the patents the components and proportions necessary for the chemical watermarking process.
“Watermarking” generally refers to a localized design, name, word, or date found in a sheet of paper. Strictly speaking, a watermark is a design. Smaller secondary names, words, and dates in the corners or opposite the main design are more accurately referred to as countermarks. However, the term “watermark” is used in this paper in the broader application, referring to the process of marking rather than to the content of the mark. The first watermarked Western paper dates from the 13th century. A cross and circle motif/design (Italy, 1282) is considered to be the first known Western example. Watermarks have not traditionally occurred in Eastern papers, although more contemporary examples exist. Watermarking originally might have been intended as an esthetic enhancement, a mark of quality, or a proprietary mark for the papermaker or the wealthy donor or client. Similar types of information, such as a particular brand of paper, manufacture from a specific mill, or depiction of a logo for a business or organization, are conveyed in watermarks today. Watermarks also relay historic information that can help date or geographically place a paper, thus validating a manuscript, document, or piece of art. The history and development of watermarks has been extensively researched. (See the bibliography for a brief listing of publications on the history, manufacture, and design of traditional watermarks.)
At the bottom of the sieve, there is also an iron drawing for the watermark.
â¢ Vellum paper
These are white fine plain unlaid papers.
Besides watermarks and "antique" laid lines, Whistler saw othersigns of quality and age in the papers he chose for printing:Creases and worm holes, discreetly placed and not too numerous, anddirt.
However, in theLucas Collection in the Baltimore Museum of Art, the twelve etchingsof the French Set are printed on yellow India paper and mounted onlarge sheets of heavy white wove paper, another example ofWhistler's interest in appearances.
Watermark designs are created by sewing metal wires or soldering metal stencils onto a wire screen. In making paper by hand, the wire, known as a mold, is dipped into the wet pulp slurry is in a tub known as a vat. When the mold is removed from the vat, the excess water drains by gravity from the slurry. The fibers are distributed over the mold surface and deposited between the raised wires. In making paper by machine, the stock is run over or under the dandy roll, a wire cylinder to which the design is attached and which displaces the wet fibers in the area of design. Designs may also be impressed by localized pressure between metal or rubber rollers or dies. However the mark is produced, the result is an area in the paper that is less dense and thus more translucent when held in front of a light source. (See Further Reading for additional explanations of the variations and nuances of traditional watermarking.)
The watermarks in the Whistler print papers indicate thatWhistler did find quite a lot of paper made in the 18th century orearlier and a good deal of it was Dutch.