Finally you might choose to incorporate Geertz's works into your text in the following manner:Note: when you put somebody's words inside quotation marks, be sure to quote exactly--spelling, grammatical errors--everything must be just as it is in the original.Paraphrase or Summary
Even when you put other people's ideas or information into your own words, you must cite the source of the idea and date.
Your job is not quite finished. After writing the paper, you must prepare its physical presentation. Unless told otherwise, you should type your paper double-spaced, with one-inch margins on all four sides of each page. Your paper should feature a title page, the body of the paper, and then the bibliography, "Works Cited," or "References" page(s). If your instructor prefers some variation of this model, that will usually be specified in advance. Once again, it is important to stress that a paper is a whole product. A paper that contains impeccable research, cogent analysis, and brilliant writing will still evoke a negative reaction from the reader if it is wrinkled, printed sloppily, or barely readable because the ink on the ribbon is exhausted. Some general guidelines include:
That is a pain, and we are inclined to think dark thoughts about their ancestry, but we're not so prejudiced that we'd pass up a good source on that account.)Since each source can cite only earlier sources, a citation chain normally leads from recent to earlier and earlier publications.
Using the reference works shelved in the reference area enables you to find that dingy brown book on the far end of the bottom shelf on the east side of the sixth floor which is just what you need for your paper.
When you find a source in a reference work you then have to go to the computer "card catalog" (a now archaic reference to the time when you actually consulted the paper cards directly) and find its call number, so that you can locate it in "the stacks." The stacks are all those shelves of books that really make up a library.
Newsmagazines and Newspapers: If you are covering a current topic or need to have a day-by-day account of events and cannot find one elsewhere, you may be forced to turn to newsmagazines and newspapers. Be sure, however, to check with your instructor to ensure that these are considered acceptable sources for your assignment. Mostly they are useful for facts or for contemporary quotes and are usually not good sources of analysis. Your library may have a computerized access system such as to assist you. The also helps access this material. Additionally, major newspapers like the and are indexed. Some are now available on CD-ROM, allowing you to use the computer to search by subject and then print out the relevant stories. For instance, is one CD-ROM-based system that among other things indexes the and The computer database will not only provide you with indexed citations of journalistic articles, but also with the text of the article in most instances. See the reference librarians for help with such resources. There are sources such as and that are compilations of weekly news events and are indexed.
For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior,
Formatting your paper correctly under APA style is an important technical piece of your research term paper or essay. If you are not very familiar with the APA rules, you may choose to get some help with the technical layout of your paper through using an APA template to format your paper properly. A template is also helpful because it takes away the worry about whether your paper is formatted correctly and enables you to focus more of your time on the content. APA templates are available through a wide variety of sources including your PC word processor, proprietary template software, and even random individuals who created the template themselves by following the guidelines, but these can be outdated and inaccurate. The best place to find an accurate and quality APA template, guaranteed to reflect the most recent edition of the APA style manual, is from .
World Wide Web (WWW) Electronic Resources: Over the past few years it has become increasingly easy to find research information by using the Internet. Until recently the Gopher system of data archives was the dominant form of Internet information access, but now most governmental and nongovernmental organizations, universities, and even many businesses have developed access to their research resources over the graphic environment on the World Wide Web. The following are a number of Web sites that will get you started in searching for information you may need in writing your research paper. Although some of the Uniform Resource Locators (URL) listed below are for specific information sources, most provide you with "hot-linked" lists that will get you to where you might want to look for information.
Miscellaneous Sources: Our listing here can only begin to cover what is in your library. There may be a map room. There may also be an audio-visual section. Some libraries contain archives or a rare book collection. Talk to a librarian or your professor for added information. Also realize that no library has everything. Consequently, you may find references to sources that are not found in your library. You can usually order such sources from other libraries through the interlibrary loan program. Check with your reference librarians to learn how to use this service. Be advised, however, that interlibrary loans take some time. So order any needed sources as early as possible.
It is important, however, to acknowledge the sources of these documents, even though you may never have seen "hard copy" (printed versions) of the file(s) you wish to cite.
The keys to effective papers are good organization and presentation of ideas and error-free technical skills. There are a number of sources that you can access to help you both organize and write your paper. Some are: (Biddle & Holland, 1987); (1993); "The Write Stuff" (Cronin, 1986); (Elbow, 1981); (Strunk & White, 1979); and (Turabian, 1987). Our comments on writing a paper that follow may prove helpful to you, but they are not substitutes for the fuller discussions you will find in these writing guides.