Mostauthorities argue that enhanced media longevity is of little valuebecause current media outlast the software and devices needed toretrieve recorded information. Nevertheless, improvements in the stability, capacity, andlongevity of the base storage media are needed to drasticallyreduce the vulnerability of digital materials to loss andalteration and to lower storage costs.
Wide scale adoption of data andcommunication standards by the originators of digital informationto support current business needs will also facilitate long-termpreservation.
It seemsironic that just as libraries and archives are discovering digitalconversion as a cost-effective preservation method for certaindeteriorating materials, much information that begins its life inelectronic form is printed on paper or microfilm for safe, securelong-term storage.
Flexibility and low cost are the important driving factors for implementing an iSCSI approach, especially for long distance storage. In addition, as Ethernet speeds are continually increasing, it is believed that the 10 Gigabit Ethernet based iSCSI will be widely used for SANs in data centers. A number of devices have been developed to address the large installed base of native FC storage solutions in place today. In order to protect an organization's current investment in storage technology, SAN installations may evolve from a single specific storage network to a mix of Fibre Channel and iSCSI products.
Proteins are modified by a large number of reactions that involve reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation. The direct oxidation of amino acids produces 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-detectable protein products. Carbonylation is irreversible, and carbonylated proteins are marked for proteolysis or can escape degradation and form high molecular weight aggregates, which accumulate with age. Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds stored under optimal conditions for different periods of time, ranging from 2 to 13 years, were analyzed. Protein carbonylation was examined as a potential cause for the loss of viability of beech seeds, and the characteristic spots of protein carbonyls were identified. Here, we present and discuss the role of carbonylation in the proteome of beech seeds that contribute to the loss of seed viability during natural aging. The long-term storage of beech seeds is intricate because their germination capacity decreases with age and is negatively correlated with the level of protein carbonyls that accumulate in the seeds. We establish that protein synthesis, folding and degradation are the most affected biochemical traits in long-term stored beech seeds. In addition, we suggest that proteins associated with the stress response may have contributed to the lowered viability of beech seeds, especially the desiccation tolerance-associated proteins that include T-complex protein 1 and the universal stress protein (USP)-like protein, which is identified as carbonylated for first time here.
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The iSCSI protocol unites storage and IP networking. iSCSI uses existing Ethernet devices and the IP protocol to carry and manage data stored in a SCSI SAN. It is a simple, high speed, low-cost, long distance storage solution. One prob lem with traditional SCSI attached devices was the distance limitation. By using existing network components and exploiting the advantages of IP networking such as network management and other tools for LANs, MANs and WANs, iSCSI is expanding in the storage market and extending SAN connectivity without distance limitations. It is more cost effective due to its use of existing equipment and infrastructure. With a 10x increase from existing 1Gigabit to 10Gigabit Ethernet, it will become a major force in the SAN market. Using 10Gigabit Ethernet, SANs are reaching the highest storage transportation speeds ever.
Overall, it appears likely that a large fraction of the human blood-derived samples currently in long-term storage in biobanks is amenable to analysis using high throughput omics technologies, even if no precautions specifically related to the eventual use of these technologies were taken at the time of collection. Important criteria that should be considered in selecting samples (including freshly collected samples) for such analyses are a) time between blood collection and fractionation being ≤ 8 hr (≤ 4 hr for proteomics), and b) samples for which data are to be compared or pooled not containing different anticoagulants. Although an influence on omic profiles of additional variables, especially the length of time in cold storage, cannot be precluded owing to the relatively limited span of years in storage evaluated here, adherence to these criteria minimizes the impact of sample history and facilitates the generation of reliable data. Within these limitations, interindividual differences were found to be by far the largest source of variation in omic profiles of biosamples. As previously noted, these profiles (e.g., in the blood transcriptome) can reflect the corresponding profiles in other tissues and the effects thereupon of environmental factors (). These findings open the way to the application of these powerful technologies to biosamples collected over previous decades in the context of population-based or disease-oriented cohorts. In combination with other available information from many such cohorts (e.g., environmental exposure, dietary or lifestyle habits, disease status, or related biomarkers), such application is likely to provide strong support to research on the environmental causes of disease.
Preserving digital materials in formats that are reliable andusable, however, will require long-term maintenance of structuralcharacteristics, descriptive metadata, and display, computational,and analytical capabilities that are very demanding of both massstorage and software for retrieval and interpretation. Digital preservation requirements may be expressed differentlyby archives, libraries, and other types of repositories that arestruggling to meet escalating user expectations with limitedfinancial and technical resources.
IP was developed as an open standard with complete interoperability of components. Two new IP storage network tech nologies are Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) and SCSI over IP (iSCSI). IP communication across a standard IP net work via Fibre Channel Tunneling or storage tunneling has the benefit of utilizing storage in locations that may exceed the directly attached limit of nearly 10 km when using fiber as the transport medium. Internal to the data center, legacy Fibre Channel can also be run over coaxial cable or twisted pair cabling, but at significantly shorter distances. The incor poration of the IP standard into these storage systems offers performance benefits through speed, greater availability, fault tolerance and scalability. These solutions, properly imple mented, can almost guaranty 100% availability of data. The IP based management protocols also provide network man agers with a new set of tools, warnings and triggers that were proprietary in previous generations of storage technology. Se curity and encryption solutions are also greatly enhanced. With 10G gaining popularity and the availability of new faster WAN links, these solutions can offer true storage on demand.
Beech (F. sylvatica L.) seeds present orthodox behavior when they acquire desiccation tolerance during seed development (Kalemba et al. ) and form a glassy matrix in the dry state (Pukacka et al. ). However, during long-term storage, beech seeds present intermediate behavior because the seeds lose viability faster than other orthodox seeds (Pukacka and Ratajczak ). The results of seed germination capacity (Fig. ) are in perfect agreement with the results obtained previously with beech seeds originated from different provenances (Pukacka and Ratajczak ). Similarly, seeds stored for 2, 5, 7 and 10 years had germination capacities of 97, 87, 68 and 20 %, respectively. This indicates that for more than 7 years seed storage under optimal conditions cannot preserve seed vitality and that the maintenance of low temperature and low moisture content is not able to stop processes leading to dramatic decreases in seed vitality. We tested seeds that had been stored from 2 to 13 years and a significant negative correlation was observed between germination capacity and protein carbonyls content (Fig. ), consistent with the idea that there is a link between the protein carbonylation level and the germination capacity of beech seeds. The increasing amount of protein carbonyls in stored seeds (Fig. a) was consistent with the carbonyl levels detected in embryonic axes after 1D SDS-PAGE of soluble protein extracts (Fig. b).