PCGS agrees and graded it a 63 PPQ - Choice New.
Aside from the Bonham issuance this note is J Whatman watermarked.
This note is priced for the issuance, the watermark & the grade.
By the beginning of the 1790s much British paper (still all hand-made) was being produced in wove moulds, which had been gradually supplanting laid moulds from the late 1750s. Wove paper—made, it is assumed, by James Whatman snr.—appears to have been used for the first time in a British publication, John Baskerville's edition of Virgil's published in 1757 though the paper itself was presumably available as early as 1754. The use of wove paper had become the norm by the end of the century, even if the demand for laid paper was never to be eclipsed entirely. Not only were moulds increasingly wove; there was a tendency towards the use of moulds without watermarks. At all periods a certain proportion of [End Page 295] hand-made paper—both laid and wove, and not always paper of the poorest quality—was produced without watermarks; for volumes printed on paper without watermarks it may therefore be impossible to determine their format, given the lack also of chain lines and especially in the likely absence of such alternative determinants as deckle/cut edges, point holes, press figures or sheet numbers.
The only thing that we know at present about this document is from physical examination – the paper has a clear watermark of ‘Whatman’s Rough Imperial.’ Was it possibly a research tool in connection with his Revolving Photometer ?
Specialist paper for the calotype and salt print processes was sold by R. Turner, Chafford Mill, and J. Whatman, Turkey Mill. Paper was also available pre-iodised and pre-sensitised. An advertisement for pre-sensitised paper states that it will keep for between 14 and 20 days.6 All of the chemicals required for the process were readily available and, where possible, prepared as ready-to-use solutions e.g. silver double iodide, aceto-nitrate of silver.
Audubon's papers are typical of high quality, wovewatercolor papers and it is extremely difficult to distinguish onepaper from another without the watermarks.
These dates have beenrecorded on the watermarked papers: Following the J WHATMANwatermark; 1808, 1810, 1816, 1817, 1821, 1826, 1827, 1830, 1831,1836, 1837.
The most common watermarks recorded are: J WHATMAN withor without a date following, J WHATMAN/ TURKEY MILL, with andwithout a date following, TURKEY MILLS/ J WHATMAN with & withoutdates following and TURKEY MILLS/ DATE/ J WHATMAN.
For the bibliographer there are two major developments in the production of paper in Britain in the period under consideration which are of immediate relevance. One is the change, resulting from legislation which came into force in 1794, in the location of watermarks within the traditional hand-held mould. The other is the transition from hand-made paper (a process by which paper is produced, one sheet at a time, from hand-held moulds dipped into vats of stuff in suspension in tepid water) to machine-made (a process by which paper is produced by machine in a continuous web, to be cut into sheets of the required size at some subsequent stage).
Photogenic drawing derives from experiments started in 1834 by W.H.F. Talbot, the process was made public in January 1839. It was the first negative/positive photographic process, the negative aspect was largely replaced by the calotype, the positive part of the process continued in use with the calotype and on into the wet collodion period. The negative could be produced in a camera or by simply placing objects on the sensitive paper (what would later be called a photogram). The process was not patented. Talbot also experimented at this time with silver iodide and silver bromide in place of silver chloride.1
Whatman watermark, similar in format and subject to those published in an 1800 British work by George Mason, and also including children's toys, boats, mandarins, butterflies, and Chinese scenes probably ca.
Whatman watermark, similar in format and subject to those published in an 1800 British work by George Mason, also including children's toys, boats, mandarins, butterflies, and Chinese scenes probably ca.
The different watermarkshad been formally assigned in 1805, years after the two mills hadbeen established.The watermark TG & C which is the mark for the Americanpapermaking mill (1787-1837) of Joshua and Thomas Gilpin and itappears rarely in this collection.