Emphasis is on communications technology and how it has the potential to either equalize the playing field in terms of national players or to allow the more technologically advanced nations to dominate world markets.
In assessing Vodafone’s decision to pursue new markets in the Eastern Europe region it is important to make careful considerations about the barriers to entry into the telecommunications industry. Vodafone’s’ wide network coverage in other parts of Europe simplifies entry to the industry because it makes acquisitions and partners with companies that have wide network coverage. This provides an advantage to the company in terms of pricing because it can afford to offer its services at lower prices because of its wide network coverage. The company develops the acquired networks and is not burdened with the extra costs of advertising and promotional strategies to create awareness about the service in new locations. The fact that Vodafone’s acquires already established infrastructure makes it easier for the company to quickly launch its services to an already existing customer base. It is also beneficial because the company makes the most out of the positive reputation of the company from which it acquires the infrastructure as well as its own internationally recognized strong brand. This is double visibility and customer confidence benefits for the existing and the potential customers.
Developing and using new tools
In addition, to developing the capabilities to conduct research spanning diverse environments, international marketingresearchers also need to create and make imaginative and thoughtful use of new approaches to understand the changingmarket place. As qualitative research techniques advance and mature, they offer increasing promise as a means ofunderstanding and interpreting trends in diverse cultural contexts. Qualitative research provides insights andunderstanding of the consumption and purchase context and the underlying determinants of behavior, as well as ameans of interpreting the results of quantitative research and predicting future trends.
Qualitative research techniques offer a number of advantages in internationalmarketing research insofar as they are unstructured and do not entail the imposition of the researcher�s prespecifiedconceptual model or terminology on the respondent. As a consequence, qualitative techniques are especially helpfulin probing the contextual embedding of attitudes and behavior, providing deep understanding of situational andcontextual factors, and providing inputs into interpreting observed differences between countries and cultures(Cooper, 1996). In addition, as qualitative techniques are often observational or unstructured, they require minimalcognitive skills, and are particularly suited to research in emerging markets. They can also provide insights intounderlying or hidden motivations as well as probing future trends and scenarios.
Videotaping of consumers in purchase or consumption situations can providea rich source of information relating to the role of contextual and situational factors on consumer behavior andresponse patterns in different cultures and contexts. Videotaping of consumers in an instore environment providesa wealth of information about visual cues and their role in product evaluation not easily obtained from other formsof data collection (Restall and Anton, 1995). In some cases, instore videotaping can be used to prompt or elicitresponses from consumers. In emerging markets, videotaping of consumer usage and consumption behavior often providesdeeper understanding of how consumers use products and how these are embedded in the cultural fabric of society,as well as perceptions and associations of foreign products and brands.
Projective and elicitation techniques such as collages, picture completion,analogies and metaphors, psychodrawing and personalization can be used to encourage respondents to project theirprivate and unconscious beliefs and personal and subjective associations. Collages, were, for example used in astudy of teenagers, worldwide to explore their feelings about the future. This revealed significant differencesbetween countries especially in terms of the degree of pessimism and hedonism (Thiesse, 1996). Equally, brand perceptionscan be explored through personalization, association techniques or analogies, to probe culturally embedded imagesand associations that vary across cultures.
Focus groups and extended creativity groups can also be used to explore underlyingmotivations, feelings and points of view. These techniques can be used to screen new product ideas and conceptsor develop ideas for a new positioning or advertising theme or to examine future trends. Use of such techniquesis likely to become increasingly critical in the 21st century as managers seek to identify new products or ideasthat will appeal to cross-national segments or consumers worldwide. Their unstructured character facilitates identificationof ideas, concepts and trends, which are truly universal, rather than reflecting the influence of any specificculture or country.
Conducting and co-ordinating research spanning diverse environments
The increasing diversity of the sociocultural and economic environment in which research is being conducted, impliesthat international marketing researchers will need to develop the capability to conduct and co-ordinate researchspanning a brand range of environmental contexts and research questions. In essence, researchers will need to beable to tailor research questions, and adapt research instruments and administration procedures to different environments,as well as to interpret or generalize results at a pan-cultural or global level. This goes beyond geographic co-ordinationof multi-country studies, translation and development of multilingual questionnaires or research instruments, andrequires skills in designing multi-site studies that include a common core and purpose, while at the same timeaddressing country-specific issues (Douglas and Craig, 1997).
At a first level, skills in designing multi-site studies in diverse environmentswill increasingly be required. Here, although the key research questions are clearly identified and common acrosssites, attention needs to be paid to how constructs are operationalized, research instruments designed, and samplingand data collection conducted at each site. The definition of product categories may, for example, differ as wellas brand availability, the nature of the retail environment, or more insidiously, the socio-cultural context ofconsumption. Constructs or definitions used in one context are not necessarily appropriate in another. Researchinstruments, data collection or sampling procedures may incorporate bias, requiring reformulation or adaptationto ensure meaningful results (Craig and Douglas, 2000).
Use of a team incorporating members from different cultural backgrounds andsites helps to strike a balance between the need for local input and adaptation to local site conditions with theneed for comparability and equivalence across sites. Researchers from each site should participate in the earlystages of research design and in the interpretation of data and results, rather than merely acting as local implementersof a centrally designed study. They can then provide input in the formulation of research questions and the designof the research instrument as well as in sampling and data collection procedures. Equally, local researchers arebest placed to interpret findings from their sites in terms of local contextual factors, and to explain local anomaliesor differences.
At a higher or "supra-country" level, skills and capabilities indesigning and managing a research program which spans multiple, diverse environments are likely to become increasinglycritical. A research program might, for example, cover a product business or industry worldwide. If the productbusiness is at different stages of the product life-cycle in different regions or market conditions differ substantially,as, for example, detergents, different types of research or information will need to be collected. Ability to definerelevant research issues in each context, and to coordinate and manage the different studies, will be criticalto provide meaningful input for the development of the firm�s long-run strategy in world markets.
International Economics Term Paper Example Topics and Economics 183ŠTopics in International Economics.
In terms of the domestic Chinese market, it is recommended that FedEx proceed with extreme caution, building relationship with Chinese businesses through offering value-added services.
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Other countries would have dissolved into civil war with such extreme swings in policies, but Chiles response has been to show an annual economic growth of 7% in each of the last 10 years, following market adjustments after the military government reversed many of socialist Allendes programs Though Chile is in line to join the NAFTA accords, Washington politics is preventing the active participation.
The paper traces the transition from Mao to Deng, examines the political climate under Deng, profiles Dengs economic reforms and their impact, and examines the progress from a planned commodity economy (1984 to 1991) to a socialist market economy (1992).
European countries adopted a regulatory framework that works to promote competiveness in the single telecommunications market. This policy compels Vodafone to reduce wireless network termination rates. Other regulatory terms require the a 70 per cent reduction in the roaming rates as a way of implementing a euro tariff aimed at further reducing the charges of making calls within the European Union countries (Saplitsa, 2008).
Ford has performed so well in the Mexican market that the senior management responsible for much of the growth and success has been moved to Fords European headquarters for the purpose of reproducing the Mexican experience in Europe Bibliography lists 12 sources.
Includes information about changing political and economic situations as well as provides a list of suggestions of types of products and marketing mediums which would be successful verses those that would be unsuccessful.
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