Source Reduction is used synonymously with the term, , defined above. The combined experience of other states and public interest groups indicates that it is easier to understand the term waste prevention. Therefore, the CalRecycle adopted the term in May 1993. Check how the terms are being used when reviewing documents or in conversation to avoid confusion.
3. The text contends that governmental policyencourages the growth and activity of interest groups; programscreate constituencies. What about the reverse-do interest groupscreate governmental programs? Could interest group activity beresponsible for the expansion of government itself? In The End ofLiberalism, Theodore Lowi presented the theory that publicpolicy is formulated by government bureaucrats in conjunction withinterest groups. Has the complexity of contemporary society shiftedthe advantage to interest groups?
The Progressive interest group (PIG) advocates for peace, social and economic justice, civil rights, civil liberties, human rights, and the environment....
However, at the same instant there are marked differences in both composition and function that define interest groups as different entities from larger political parties.
Without these important groups, many benefits that people have, such as healthcare, wage raises, education, ect, are a direct result of political interest groups....
9. Information is the primary tactic employedby interest groups. A substantial proportion of the legislationintroduced into Congress is written either entirely or in part byinterest groups. Why would members of Congress introduce suchlegislation? Is the public vulnerable to exploitation by powerfulgroups due to their monopoly over information?
7. Explore the reasons why an interest group'sexternal political strategy and internal recruitment strategy mayappear contradictory. Can an interest group confronting thesecircumstances be successful? Why? What leadership skills are requiredto direct an interest group experiencing these tensions?
8. Do students belong to any groups for purelypurposive reasons? Are they free riders in relation to any interestgroups? Weigh the costs and benefits associated with groupmembership. What ethical obligations should each citizen confront asa potential participant in public interest groups?
Despite such frequent and widespread recognition of the logic, itwas finally generalized analytically by Mancur Olson only in 1965 inhis Logic of Collective Action. The odd mismatch of individualincentives and what may loosely be called collective interests is theindependent discovery of two game theorists who invented the prisoner'sdilemma for two persons (see Hardin 1982a, 24–5) and of variousphilosophers and social theorists who have noted the logic ofcollective action in various contexts. In Olson's account, what hadbeen a fairly minor issue for economists became a central issue forpolitical scientists and social theorists more generally. From early inthe twentieth century, a common view of collective action in pluralistgroup politics was that policy on any issue must be, roughly, a vectorsum of the forces of all of the groups interested in the issue (Bentley1908). In this standard vision, one could simply count the number ofthose interested in an issue, weight them by their intensity and thedirection they want policy to take, and sum the result geometrically tosay what the policy must be. Olson's analysis abruptly ended this longtradition; and group theory in politics took on, as the central task,trying to understand why some groups organize and others do not.
6. Which incentive-material, purposive,solidary-is routinely most important in students' decisions to joinan interest group? Why? Does this lead students to pay greaterattention to the group's external political strategy or its internalrecruitment strategy?
Some interest groups like Citizens United (a conservative, non-profit organization dedicated to restoring traditional government to citizens’), in order for them to keep and see their preferred candidates stay in office, the group spend mass amount of money on campaign contribution, rather than on lobbying expenditures.
4. If one assumes that American society willbecome more complex in the future, can one rightfully assume that newwaves of interest group formation are also likely toconcur?
The explosion in the number of interest groups and interest group members and finances has had an effect on the decline of the American political party and partisanship, the effect on democracy and the public interest, and the bias that has come with interest group competition....