3, March 2011.
 Sozan Abdulla, "New Visual Cryptography Algorithm For Colored Image", Journal of Computing, Vol.2, Issue 4, APRIL 2010.
 Shyamalendu Kandar, Arnab Maiti, Bibhas Chandra Dhara, "Visual Cryptography Scheme for Color Image Using Random Number with Enveloping by Digital Watermarking", International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol.
Proposed multipliers can be used for high performance applications like signal processing, image processing.
Key words: Booth Algorithm,Carry Save Adder,Kogge Stone Adder ,Digitl Signal Processing
 Young-Ho Seo and Dong-Wook Kim, "A New VLSI Architecture of Parallel Multiplier Accumulator Based on Radix-2 ModifiedBooth Algorithm", IEEE trans.
The growing problem of the unauthorized reproduction ofdigital multimedia data such as movies, television broadcasts,and similar digital products has triggered worldwide efforts toidentify and protect copyright ownership of multimediacontents. In the last decade digital watermarking techniqueshave been devised to answer the ever-growing need to protectthe intellectual property. discrete wavelet transform (DWT)and discrete cosine transform (DCT) are two most populartools used in watermarking algorithm. With the increasing useof Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), the digitalwatermarking technology in transform domain has been greatlydeveloped. Aim of this paper is to provide robust techniquebased on DWT, DCT and SVD, we propose a newwatermarking algorithm for digital image. Experimental resultsshow that this algorithm combines the advantages of thesethree transforms. It can satisfy the imperceptibility androbustness very well. This scheme is robust against all sorts ofattacks. It has very high data hiding capacity.
Besides applications in the fields of copyright protection, authentication and security, digital watermarks can also serve as invisible labels and content links. For example, photo development laboratories may insert a watermark into the picture to link the print to its negative. To find the negative for a given print, simply scan the print and extract the information about the negative. In another scenario, digital watermarks may also be used as a geometrical reference, which may be useful for programs such as optical character recognition (OCR) software. The embedded calibration watermark may improve the detection reliability of the OCR software since it allows the determination of translation, rotation, and scaling.
The three pictures below illustrate this application. Image (a) shows an original photo of a car that has been protected with a watermarking technology. In photo (b), the same picture is shown, but with a small modification: the numbers on the license plate have been changed. Image (c) shows the photo after running the digital watermark detection program on the tampered photo. The tampered areas are indicated in white. We can clearly see that the detected area corresponds to the modifications applied to the original photo.
In this paper, we propose a new digital watermarking algorithm in encrypted image based on compressive sensing measurements and 2-D discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Firstly, we process the original image through 2-D DWT to highlight the important part and unimportant part. For the important LL2 coefficient, before encrypting it by the traditional stream cipher, we divide it into blocks, and mark the blocks to get a sequence as the watermark position key. For other wavelet coefficients, we select two different compressive sensing measurement matrices to simultaneously encrypt and compress them, respectively. Then we embed a watermark into the high frequency coefficient measurements except HH1 section based on the watermark position key. Finally, the watermarked image is scrambled to enhance the security. In this algorithm, compressive sensing is adopted for compression and encryption, and watermark is embedded in the measurements values. It can not only increase the watermark embedding capacity and robustness, but also utilize the reconstruction characteristic of compressive sensing to get higher-quality recovered image. The experimental results verify the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm.
In this paper, we have reviewed the state-of-art of the various wavelet based image watermarking techniques in spatial as well as in transform domain based on the robustness, imperceptibility, capacity and security. The embedding and extraction methods suggested by various researchers/scientists have been studied along with their advantages and disadvantages. We have also discussed some important research challenges and requirements for making the watermarking system more efficient. It will be more important for researchers to implement effective watermarking method.
That means that key information is written twice on the document. For instance, the name of a passport owner is normally printed in clear text. But it would also be hidden as an invisible watermark in the passport photo. If anyone tries to tamper with the passport by replacing the photo, it would be possible to detect the change by scanning the passport and verifying the name hidden in the photo.
Nidhi H Divecha and N N Jani. Article: Image Watermarking Algorithm using DCT, DWT and SVD. ncipet(10):13-16, March 2012. Full text available.
An exhaustive list of digital watermarking applications is of course impossible. However, it is interesting to note the increasing interest in fragile watermarking technologies. Especially promising are applications related to copy protection of printed media. Examples here include the protection of bills with digital watermarks. Various companies have projects in this direction and it is very likely that fully functioning solutions will soon be available.
Based on the analysis of previous digital watermarking algorithms for image in two different domains, spatial domain and frequency domain, the paper has put forward a DCT-based digital watermarking algorithm for image, which is not only robust against attacks on watermarkinginformation but also has a larger watermarking capacity than previous DCT-based watermarking algorithms.
The first applications that came to mind were related to copyright protection of digital media. In the past, duplicating artwork was quite complicated and required a high level of expertise for the counterfeit to look like the original. However, in the digital world, this is not true. Today, it is possible for almost anyone to duplicate or manipulate digital data, while not losing data quality. Similar to a painter's signature or monogram, today's artists can copyright their work by hiding their name within the image. Hence, the embedded watermark allows identification of the owner of the work. It is clear that this concept is also applicable to other media, such as digital video and audio. Currently, the unauthorized distribution of digital audio and video over the Internet is a big problem. In this scenario, digital watermarking may be useful to set up controlled audio distribution and to provide efficient means for copyright protection, usually in collaboration with international registration bodies.
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