American Psychiatric Association (1980). (3rd ed.). (1987). (3rd ed. rev.). DSM-III (1980) listed a number of specific behaviors as criteria for the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), the replacement for the term sociopathy. The clinical construct was no longer defined by personality traits, but rather by a set of specific behavioral criteria. The DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder thus represented a radical departure from the clinical tradition of DSM-I and DSM-II as they focus mainly on antisocial behaviors (Hare's Factor 2) based on the assumption that clinicians cannot validly or reliably assess interpersonal/affective characteristics (Factor 1) [this assumption was one of the main reasons why Hare developed the PCL]. Andrade: Easy to assess behavioral traits result in an over-inclusive, but a reliably measured construct. The core personality attributes of psychopathy were no longer included in the criteria. The criteria for APD adopted within DSM-III focused exclusively on behavioral indicants of deviance in childhood and adulthood, including such things as truancy, delinquency, stealing, vandalism, irresponsibility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, recklessness, and lying. As a function of this change, the DSM-III diagnosis of antisocial personality proved to be highly reliable. Some effort was made to respond to criticisms of the 3rd edition in the revised third edition by the addition of lack of remorse (i.e. "feels justified in having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another," p. 346) as an adult criterion for APD. The changes made in DSM-III led to an expanded clinical and research focus that resulted in a substantial increase in publications on personality disorder over the last decade (Blashfield & McElroy, 1987; Livesley, 2001, p. 6).
American Psychiatric Association (1994). (4th ed.). (2000). (4th ed., text revision). Continues to emphasize the behavioral characteristics of this disorder. The DSM-IV defines ASPD as a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three (or more) of seven criteria. The DSM-IV includes the following statement: "This pattern has also been referred to as psychopathy, sociopathy, or dissocial personality disorder" (p. 645). This increases diagnostic confusion as the research literature discriminates between psychopathy and ASPD (Hare, 1991/2003); while the DSM-IV indicates that these terms are synonymous.
The authors summarize the progress made in the past decade toward making homeless assistance programs more accountable to funders, consumers, and the public. They observe that research on the costs of homelessness and cost offsets associated with intervention programs has been limited to people who are homeless with severe mental illness. But this research has raised awareness of the value of this approach, such that dozens of new studies in this area are underway, mostly focused on “chronic homelessness.” Less progress has been made in using cost and performance data to systematically assess interventions for families, youth, and transitionally homeless adults. The authors present case studies of promising practices from the State of Arizona and Columbus, Ohio, demonstrating innovative uses of client and program data to measure performance and improve program management toward state policy goals, such as increased housing placement rates, reduced lengths of homelessness, and improved housing stability.
The following are research examples found in Social Work Abstracts, an NASW publication that culls behavioral and social science literature. A search for “homeless*” yielded 137 articles published between 2002 and 2008. The following references were selected to show a range of social work issues using the most recent research findings. They are divided by population (elderly, , , and ) and issue ().
In this paper, the authors synthesize the findings of recent studies examining the role of mainstream programs such as Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and Workforce Investment Act (WIA) initiatives in enhancing employment and incomes for people who have experienced homelessness. They also describe the design and outcomes of targeted programs designed specifically to address employment and income support for people who are homeless. While some rigorous evaluations have been done on mainstream programs, the effects of the interventions on the subpopulation that has been homeless are often not addressed. Few rigorous studies have been done on targeted programs. The authors draw several conclusions from the available evidence and outline future research directions to fill important gaps in the research literature.
Cooper, B. S., Herve, H., & Yuille, J. C. (2007). Psychopathy and memory for violence. (2), 123-135. Despite theoretical speculation suggesting psychopaths have superior memory for their autobiographical experiences in comparison to nonpsychopaths, little published research has directly assessed this issue. This lack of research formed the impetus for the present investigation. As part of a larger study investigating variables associated with episodic memory in adult male offenders, 150 violent crime perpetrators were interviewed at two federal penitentiaries in British Columbia, Canada. The participants' memories for three different acts of perpetrated violence were elicited (i.e., acts of instrumental and reactive violence and a poorly remembered act of violence) and exhausted for detail. The sample was dichotomized by psychopathy status via the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003). Consistent with certain assumptions of Herve, Cooper, and Yuille's (2007) biopsychosocial model of eyewitness memory, the pattern which emerged indicated that psychopathic participants reportedly had better memory for their acts of violence in comparison to nonpsychopathic participants. The results are discussed in terms of how the present research supports the extant research and theories. Future directions for empirical investigations and implications for the criminal justice system are offered.
Cooke, D. J., & Michie, C. (2001). Refining the construct of psychopathy: Towards a hierarchical model. (2), 171-188. doi:10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.52 Psychopathy is characterized by diverse indicators. Clinical accounts have emphasized 3 distinct facets: interpersonal, affective, and behavioral. Research using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), however, has emphasized a 2-factor model. A review of the literature on the PCL-R and related measures of psychopathy, together with confirmatory factor analysis of PCL-R data from North American participants, indicates that the 2-factor model cannot be sustained. A 3-factor hierarchical model was developed in which a coherent superordinate factor, Psychopathy, is underpinned by 3 factors: Arrogant and Deceitful Interpersonal Style, Deficient Affective Experience, and Impulsive and Irresponsible Behavioral Style. The model was cross-validated on North American and Scottish PCL-R data, Psychopathy Screening Version data, and data derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) antisocial personality disorder field trial. . . . We are advocating the future revision of the full PCL-R to assist research into the nature of the disorder; however, we strongly emphasize the necessity of continuing to use the full PCL-R for risk assessment and other applied purposes. [The authors criticise the two factors analysis of PCL-R. They argue that a more appropriate account should include three factors. The interpersonal/affective factor is separated in an interpersonal and an abnormal affect component. Factor I: Arrogant and deceitful interpersonal items: 1. Glibness/superficial charm 2. Grandiose sense of self-worth 4. Pathological lying 5. Conning/manipulative. Factor II: Deficient affective experience: 6. Lack of remorse or guilt 7. Shallow affect 8. Callous/lack of empathy 16. Failure to accept responsibility for own actions. Factor III: 3. Need for stimulation/proneness to boredom 9. Parasitic lifestyle 13. Lack of realistic, long-term goals 14. Impulsivity 15. Irresponsibility. Remaining items that do not fall under any factor: 10. Poor behavioural controls 11. Promiscuous sexual behaviour 12. Early behavioural problems 17. Many short-term marital relationship 18. Juvenile delinquency 19. Revocation of conditional release 20. Criminal versatility. For a three factor analysis of psychopathy in childhood and adolescence, see Frick and Hare 2001b.]
Cale, E. M., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2002b). Sex differences in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder: A review and integration. (8), 1179-1207. Although the correlates and causes of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been the subject of extensive investigation, researchers in this area have until recently focused almost exclusively on males. As a consequence, relatively little is known about psychopathy and ASPD in females. In this paper, we review the empirical literature in sex differences in the base rates, mean symptom levels, correlates, and factor structure of psychopathy and ASPD. In addition, we discuss the potential sex-differentiated phenotypic expressions of psychopathy and ASPD (e.g., somatization disorder [SD]) as well as sex differences in the developmental trajectories of these conditions. There is suggestive evidence that these conditions may be differentially expressed across biological sex, although further investigation of this issue is warranted. We conclude with recommendations for future research in this area, including suggestions for embedding the study of sex differences in psychopathy and ASPD within a construct validational framework. . . . The most consistent finding across studies is that psychopathy and ASPD are more prevalent in males than in females. However, the magnitudes of these sex differences are uncertain
Bloom, H., Webster, C., Hucker, S., & De Freitas, K. (2005). The Canadian contribution to violence risk assessment: History and implications for current psychiatric practice. (1), 3-11. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Over the past quarter-century, Canadian researchers, clinical practitioners, and policy specialists have made several notable contributions to the broad field of violence risk assessment and management. In part, these contributions have been fostered by major changes in law over this period; in part, they have been spurred by findings from large-scale Canadian prediction-outcome studies. This paper offers references for a range of Canadian-inspired assessment schemes designed to evaluate psychopathy and potential for violence against others. . . . It is to be hoped that this paper will give readers unfamiliar with the emerging specialty of risk assessment a clearer idea of the purpose of recently evolved assessment schemes like the Hare PCL-R, VRAG, HCR-20, HCR-20CG, SAVRY, EARL-20B, EARL-21G, and START.