One can reduce the negative effect of writing reading a free example term paper on Human Genome Project written by the top-certified writers for the student’s benefit. It is smart to use the free sample term paper on Human Genome Project and its valuable instructions and advice for the successful technical organization of the paper, its format, structure and the right research approach towards the issue of the project.
The Human Genome Project started in 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick inferred the molecular structure of DNA, the molecule of which genome is created. (Watson and Crick were awarded the Nobel Prize for this work in 1962.). Since then the scientists have wished to understand the entire succession of a gene, and hoped that some day it would be probable to define the entire succession of all of the genes in any organism, including humans. During the 1970s molecular biologists evolved techniques for isolation and cloning of individual genes. Paul Berg was the first to originate a recombinant DNA molecule in 1972, and within a few years gene cloning was a standard tool of the molecular biologist. NHGRI’s vision for the future, which is being published April 24, 2003 in the journal Nature.
No single species will be perfect for annotating the human genome, says Frazer. Genomes evolve at different rates, and various mammalian species will be needed to pick up human genes of interest. The same gene might be present in both humans and mice, but in mice it may have mutated or evolved to the point that its DNA sequence no longer closely matches the human version. The statistical tools researchers use to find matches across species would not recognize the mouse gene.
"We've looked at conserved regions in six different species, and some are conserved only between humans and dogs and cats, while others are only conserved between cats and cowsand some are present in all species," says Frazer. There is no way to know which species will be most helpful for annotating different parts of the human genome, which is why, she adds, scientists need high-throughput screening methods.
February's Genome Advance of the Month is about the Roadmap Epigenomics Project and its aim to catalog the epigenome of different human cell types. The epigenome consists of chemical compounds that modify the genome and tell it what to do. The project, which published its initial findings in the February 18 issue of Nature, hopes to increase our understanding of how the epigenome contributes to health as well as disease.
"Several diseases in the dog look similar to keratin-associated diseases in humans, and we think they may involve the same genes," says Murphy. His team recently sequenced a keratin gene, KRT2p, and mapped it to chromosome 27 of the dog. The study appeared in Functional and Integrative Genomics.
As part of a long-term project to characterize gene families in the dog, Keith E. Murphy, of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M University, and colleagues have been studying the keratin gene family. The keratins are structural proteins found in hair, nails and skin cells, and mutations in these genes cause skin diseases in humans.
Shadow's genome project could take years, but for now researchers have the map of the dog genome. "The map is a resource that researchers can use to undertake genome-wide scans for genes of interest with a high degree of confidence," says Ostrander. It will allow investigators to study "the nitty-gritty of how gene families are arranged in the dog." The map was published in Genome Research.
"We dog researchers are not working in the dark," says Murphy. "The great progress in human genetics means that if you have a disease that presents the same way in humans and dogs, you can almost go straight to the gene in the dog."
Dog researchers, of course, would like to have the complete canine genome sequence, and one day they will get their wish. Preliminary work on the dog genome has been done at Celera Genomics in Rockville, Maryland. After sequencing the genomes of five humans and several mice last year, Celera scientists have begun to analyze the DNA of a seven-year-old Standard Poodle named Shadow and have completed an initial sequence.
The DNA sequences for thousands of genes in hundreds of specieseverything from humans to jellyfish to tomatoesare available in scientific databases. It takes seconds to search the database for a match to a dog DNA sequence. Then the real work begins.
"The value and the power of the dog system is that it allows us to dig much deeper than we can in humans," says Ostrander. Human populations are genetically diverse, and identifying disease genes can be like searching for a needle in a haystack. By contrast, there are 300 pure breeds of dog, each of which constitutes a genetically homogenous population. Researchers have access to multiple generations of a dog family and can do non-invasive studies using DNA from cheek swabs. Pinpointing disease genes in these families is relatively straightforward.
While human research has been developing an understanding of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) since Friedrich Miescher isolated the double-helix shaped molecule, efforts in recent decades to map the human genome have instigated a great amount of opportunity to the potential manipulation of the basic elements of life....