2. Start reading. At first you’ll read backgroundmaterial to become familiar with the subject. If you were assigned a term paperat the beginning of the term, read ahead in some of the assigned readings,explore recommended readings, and go to the library to find books. In general,while using a search engine such as Google to find internet sites, Wikipediaand other encyclopedias may useful for background information, many teachersand most college professors do not accept these as research sources, unless theinternet source you found is well-established as authoritative or provides averifiable statistic. Use them sparingly, and only in order to get a generalpicture.
5. When you feel that your research has suggested ananswer to your question that is not changing dramatically anymore, write thisdown as a tentative thesis for your paper. Check with your teacher and getfeedback on this tentative thesis. If you have to write a prospectus orproposal, this is usually a good point to do that. A research proposal providesthe background and significance of the question. It often includes a tentativethesis, depending on the assignment. A prospectus is similar to a proposal inthat it explains the question, why it is important, but it also usuallyincludes what steps you will take to accomplish the research. A researchprospectus may contain more background than a proposal. A research prospectusoften requires an annotated bibliography of resources, something that is onlysometimes required in a proposal.
In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior.
The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts.
The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e.
A. How to Write an Introduction. The introduction of a persuasive essay or paper must be substantial. Having finished it, the reader ought to have a very clear idea of the author's purpose in writing. To wit, after reading the introduction, I tend to stop and ask myself where I think the rest of the paper is headed, what the individual paragraphs in its body will address and what the general nature of the conclusion will be. If I'm right, it's because the introduction has laid out in clear and detailed fashion the theme and the general facts which the author will use to support it.
Not a bad introduction really, but rather scant. I have no idea, for instance, which societies will be discussed or what the theme of the paper will be. That is, while I can see what the general topic is, I still don't know the way the writer will draw the facts together, or even really what the paper is arguing in favor of.
As it turned out, the author of this paper discussed women in ancient Egypt, classical Greece, medieval France and early Islamic civilization and stressed their variable treatment in these societies. This writer also focused on the political, social and economic roles women have played in Western cultures and the various ways they have found to assert themselves and circumvent opposition based on gender.
Likewise, there are several things your paper is not. It's not a murder mystery, for instance, full of surprising plot twists or unexpected revelations. Those really don't go over well in this arena. Instead, lay everything out ahead of time so the reader can follow your argument easily. Nor is a history paper an action movie with exciting chases down dark corridors where the reader has no idea how things are going to end. In academic writing it's best to tell the reader from the outset what your conclusion will be. This, too, makes your argument easier to follow. Finally, it's not a love letter. Lush sentiment and starry-eyed praise don't work well here. They make it look like your emotions are in control, not your intellect, and that will do you little good in this enterprise where facts, not dreams, rule.
B. How to Write a Conclusion. In much the same way that the introduction lays out the thesis for the reader, the conclusion of the paper should reiterate the main points—it should never introduce new ideas or things not discussed in the body of the paper!—and bring the argument home. The force with which you express the theme here is especially important, because if you're ever going to convince the reader that your thesis has merit, it will be in the conclusion. In other words, just as lawyers win their cases in the closing argument, this is the point where you'll persuade others to adopt your thesis.
If the theme is clear and makes sense, the conclusion ought to be very easy to write. Simply begin by restating the theme, then review the facts you cited in the body of the paper in support of your ideas—and it's advisable to rehearse them in some detail—and end with a final reiteration of the theme. Try, however, not to repeat the exact language you used elsewhere in the paper, especially the introduction, or it will look like you haven't explored all aspects of the situation ().
If you want to know how to write an introduction (or an introductory paragraph), then you've come to the right place. Most forms of writing require some form of introduction. Commonly, the introduction consists of one introductory . In longer works or for complex topics, the introduction might be several paragraphs or even longer. A non-fiction book, for instance, often has a full chapter that serves as the introduction.
Do be aware of what is expected by your reader. Some fields dismiss stories and anecdotes as irrelevant, for instance. And while one group of readers might think it boring to say: "This paper will discuss the topic of how to write an introductory paragraph"; another group of readers might not only expect you to be that blunt, but also might dismiss the writing as poor writing if such a sentence did not appear by the end of the introduction.