For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.);
Assuming that the fiscal deficit for these unreported households was the same as the fiscal deficit for the unlawful immigrant households in the CPS, the total annual fiscal deficit (total benefits received minus total taxes paid) for all 3.79 million unlawful immigrant households together equaled $54.5 billion (the deficit of $14,387 per household times 3.79 million households). This sum includes direct and means-tested benefits, education, and population-based services.
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This section gives you the opportunity to discuss the meaning of your results beyond what they mean statistically; that is, you interpret the findings and indicate what can be concluded from them. In your discussion, indicate whether the results confirm, totally or in part, your original expectations or predictions. For each hypothesis, indicate whether it was supported and why. Discuss any limitations inherent in your research procedures. What implications do these limitations have for the drawn from the results? You should also discuss the relationship of your results to the original problem description:
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Medicaid Benefits Among Persons in the General Population. Data from the Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) were used to determine aggregate Medicaid expenditures among the general non-institutionalized population for the following recipient categories: the elderly; non-elderly disabled adults; non-disabled, non-elderly adults; and youth under 18. The aggregate expenditures for each recipient category were then allocated among households according each household’s reported share of the relevant benefits in the CPS.
The current analysis allocated Medicare spending among households according to the share of Medicare spending assigned to the household in the CPS. The analysis adjusted for underreporting of Medicare with the same procedures used for other direct benefits.
Medicaid Expenditures. As with Medicare, the Census makes no effort to record the costs of specific medical treatments given to a particular person under the Medicaid program. Instead, it calculates the average cost of Medicaid benefits per person for a particular demographic/beneficiary group. For example, per capita Medicaid costs for children are very different from those for the elderly. The Census assigns the appropriate per capita Medicaid costs to each individual who reports coverage in the CPS according to the individual’s beneficiary class: for example, elderly, children, non-elderly able-bodied adults, and disabled adults.
Medicare Expenditures. There is often confusion concerning the calculation of the cost of Medicare benefits by the Census. The Census makes no effort to determine the costs of medical treatments given to a particular person. Instead, it calculates the average cost of Medicare benefits per recipient and assigns that cost to each person in the CPS who reports Medicare enrollment.
Education Expenditures. The average cost of public education services was calculated in a somewhat different manner since the CPS reports whether an individual is enrolled in a public school but does not report the cost of education services provided. Consequently, data from the Census survey of governments were used to calculate the average cost of public primary and secondary education per pupil in each state.
Allocation of benefits from the remaining means-tested programs was estimated in the following manner. First, the share of reported total spending for the 11 means-tested programs covered by the CPS that goes to unlawful immigrant households was determined. Second, these households were assumed to receive a share of the means-tested benefits from the remaining unreported programs equal to their share of all expenditures on the reported means-tested programs in the CPS.
The key assumption behind this underreporting adjustment procedure is that non-immigrant, lawful immigrant, and unlawful immigrant households underreport receipt of welfare and other government benefits at roughly the same rate. For example, if receipt of food stamps is underreported by 15 percent in the CPS for the overall population, the adjustment procedure assumes that each of the subgroups of non-immigrant, lawful immigrant, and unlawful immigrant households in the CPS would underreport food stamp receipt by 15 percent. The average level of food stamp benefits among each group of households as reported in the CPS is then adjusted upward by this ratio to compensate for the underreporting.
Population-Based Services. Wherever possible, the analysis allocated the cost of population-based services among households in proportion to their estimated utilization of those services, which was calculated from their share of expenditures for the service in the CPS. For example, use of highways and roads was allocated among households in proportion to their share of gasoline expenditures reported in the CEX. Airport, public transport, water, and electric services were allocated in proportion to expenditures on those items in the CEX; in these cases, the subsidized portion of the service was assumed to be proportionate to the fees paid for the service.