Main topics relevant to survival data analysis are: Survival and hazard functions, Types of censoring, Estimation of survival and hazard functions: the Kaplan-Meier and life table estimators, Simple life tables, Peto's Logrank with trend test and hazard ratios and Wilcoxon test, (can be stratified), Wei-Lachin, Comparison of survival functions: The logrank and Mantel-Haenszel tests, The proportional hazards model: time independent and time dependent covariates, The logistic regression model, and Methods for determining sample sizes.
Let a be the total number of species in sample1, b is the number of species in sample2, and j is the number of species common to both samples, then the widely used similarity index is the Mountford Index defined as:A rather computationally involved for determining a similarity index (I) is due to Fisher, where I is the solution to the following equation:The index of similarity could be used as a "distance" so that the minimum distance corresponds to the maximum similarity.
You probably never have had to write apaper with a maximum length before. I have good reasons for limiting thefirst English 211 paper to three pages. Most obviously, the sectionusually is large for a course requiring frequent writing (including thequizzes), so this makes the reading burden more manageable for me. That isnot my main reason for limiting the length, however. Most early papers forthe English major grow shapeless and huge because they suffer from lack of focusor careful reading of the "primary source," the portions of the poem,play, etc. the writers are using as evidence for their theses.
Papers that lack focus will become hugebecause their writers don't know how to keep anything out of them or how to shape of their argument to do something efficiently for readers. If your thesis is well-focused, younever will try to explain all the artistry in an entire work of literature in asingle paper. You will realize that this takes the effort and spacerequired by a long article or book (100-300 pages). Instead, you will findan insight that powers your thesis by discovering and studying a specificpattern of evidence, or a violation of such a pattern, that makes the workmeaningful in a way that is not obvious to the Ordinary Competent Readers ofLiterature who make up your target audience. You will assume that your readers have read the work about which you are writing, so you do not have to summarize plot, nor do you have to tell them the names of all the characters. You will start with the point you are trying to make about the work, taking into account relevant reasons why your readers might not have spotted the pattern in the evidence you are describing, and you will move your readers from their ordinarily competent understanding of the work toward a better-informed, more insightful understanding of the work.
(Click on the link for some typical features of amateur writing for ignorant audiences and professional writing for knowledgeable audiences.) Fortunately for beginners in this game, even thebest readers cannot read so carefully that they will discover everything thereis to know about a well-made piece of literature. Works of art are DENSEwith meaning. Your paper's strength will come from your having read andre-read a small slice of the work with enormous care so that you can learn atleast one artistic strategy the writer has used to make it great. Again I emphasize, you should read forpatterns, or for violations of patterns, and trust your intuition (guided by myadvice) to develop an original thesis. That is all you can afford to do inthree pages if you support it with sufficient evidence.
Not that I ever stopped going to class, but the week before midterms I figured you should probably make sure you are doing your absolute best to retain as much information as possible. All of that reading and intensive listening piles up!
ALSO, in the next couple (or few) weeks, I am going to have some huge news for you guys, aka, what my post-graduation plans are. I am sorting a ton of things out right now, and am very excited about what all is to come. (Just gotta get this darn midterm over this first…. 🙁 )
Alrighty my time’s up here. This week look for a post on Greek yogurt, as well as a little personal piece on my experience as a female athlete. I’ve also got a post to write about Quest bars, which I’m hoping to do as soon as midterms are over! Oof!
Statistical inference aims at determining whether any statistical significance can be attached that results after due allowance is made for any random variation as a source of error.
HELLO!!! After a few days away from blogging and most other social media, I am back!! Thanks to midterms, blogging had to take a bit of a backseat, but I’m happy to report that they are (almost) done! To be honest, I actually have a paper due Friday at midnight, which I’ll be getting to today.
The following table provides a reasonable interpretation of P-values: This interpretation is widely accepted, and many scientific journals routinely publish papers using this interpretation for the result of test of hypothesis.
Picking a fun or unique topic may help the writing process feel less strenuous.
Once you have a topic, making an outline will help you organize your paper before writing.
Many midterm papers will be primarily research driven.
Nonparametric methods, includingboth senses of the term, distribution free tests and flexible functional forms, are more useful the less you know about your subject matter.
Start in advance to ensure you give yourself enough time to research, write, and revise!
Brainstorming and making outlines are great ways to organize your thoughts.
Getting started is always the hardest part.