Watermark designs are created by sewing metal wires or soldering metal stencils onto a wire screen. In making paper by hand, the wire, known as a mold, is dipped into the wet pulp slurry is in a tub known as a vat. When the mold is removed from the vat, the excess water drains by gravity from the slurry. The fibers are distributed over the mold surface and deposited between the raised wires. In making paper by machine, the stock is run over or under the dandy roll, a wire cylinder to which the design is attached and which displaces the wet fibers in the area of design. Designs may also be impressed by localized pressure between metal or rubber rollers or dies. However the mark is produced, the result is an area in the paper that is less dense and thus more translucent when held in front of a light source. (See Further Reading for additional explanations of the variations and nuances of traditional watermarking.)
CareTracker is a unique data collection and reporting system that’s helping Watermark Retirement Communities avoid the limitations of a file-based system. This integrated technology greatly reduces the possibility of human error and inaccuracies. CareTracker uses wall-mounted touch screen devices to process, support and track care and charges and immediately alerts users in the case of inconsistencies and non-compliance. CareTracker makes it easy to record and track accurate and complete information giving a much clearer picture of the resident’s true condition. Because of CareTracker, we can spend time with people, not paper.
Watermark’s extensive Compliance Plan is a complete set of written standards, created not just to the letter but the spirit of HIPAA. Beyond the general training received by every associate, it offers job-specific training is provided for associates working in Skilled Nursing, operations and sales.
The Safety Standards are a community-wide set of Best Practices designed to ensure that appropriate Risk Management is in place at every Watermark community. Required components include the creation and regular meeting of a Safety Committee attended by both residents and employees, regular safety training, a posted safety goal that is revised at least annually, the appropriate documentation and action plan initiation in response to all injuries, regularly documented fire drills, and the proper documentation of MSDS and emergency procedures.
Resident Programming, otherwise known as Community Life, is the heart and soul of Watermark communities. The Community Life department is charged with planning, directing, and implementing Watermark University courses, community activities, events, excursions and opportunities for residents. Community Life must reflect the broad range of goals, preferences, hopes and needs of this expanding, pioneering generation. Activities, events and opportunities build upon and expand residents’ past interests and desires for new experiences in lifelong learning and growth.
“Watermarking” generally refers to a localized design, name, word, or date found in a sheet of paper. Strictly speaking, a watermark is a design. Smaller secondary names, words, and dates in the corners or opposite the main design are more accurately referred to as countermarks. However, the term “watermark” is used in this paper in the broader application, referring to the process of marking rather than to the content of the mark. The first watermarked Western paper dates from the 13th century. A cross and circle motif/design (Italy, 1282) is considered to be the first known Western example. Watermarks have not traditionally occurred in Eastern papers, although more contemporary examples exist. Watermarking originally might have been intended as an esthetic enhancement, a mark of quality, or a proprietary mark for the papermaker or the wealthy donor or client. Similar types of information, such as a particular brand of paper, manufacture from a specific mill, or depiction of a logo for a business or organization, are conveyed in watermarks today. Watermarks also relay historic information that can help date or geographically place a paper, thus validating a manuscript, document, or piece of art. The history and development of watermarks has been extensively researched. (See the bibliography for a brief listing of publications on the history, manufacture, and design of traditional watermarks.)
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The high cost, inconvenience, and difficulty of producing intricate designs in conventionally manufactured wire or chiaroscuro watermarks were the impetus behind the invention of a simulated watermark in the commercial papermaking industry. The process of chemically watermarking paper allows for a greater diversity of applications at significantly lower cost. cites the costs and limits a0111s being approximately $300 for a dandy roll with a minimum order of 200,000 papers (400 reams) versus $20 for a chemical watermark pattern and a minimum order of 12,000 papers (24 reams).
With the Customark chemical watermark process, unmarked paper can be made in advance and stored. When an order is received, the watermark design is produced by stamping the pre-made papers and impregnating them with the patented compound under heat and pressure. While the manufacturer considers the resulting mark to be relatively inert . The marks in naturally aged samples are beginning to disappear into the surrounding paper structure. This phenomenon prompted interest in chemical watermarking and resulted in this investigation into some of the characteristics of modern chemical watermarks for the benefit of conservators.
CHEMICAL WATERMARKING is available under trade names such as Customark, Shadowmark, and Trustmark. Trustmark has a tagging material as a security feature that is mixed in the chemical watermark and changes color when exposed to chemical bleaches . Three chemically watermarked papers were supplied by the Fox River Paper Company for the purpose of experimentation. They were:
AL Wizard is a robust resident health assessment software package that assures each Watermark community has the most current and complete contact information, details, face sheets, and assessments of resident health. In Watermark assisted living and memory care programs billing is keyed to a tiered system based on the health care “points” generated by AL Wizard. As residents reach a higher tier of care, they are billed accordingly. As a result of knowing exactly how much care is needed for each resident, labor can be appropriately assigned by managers and care is appropriately billed in the business office.
The Arabs got papermaking 600 years later as one of the spoils of war. The Central Asian city of Samarkand was fighting the Chinese and captured a number of prisoners, two of whom were papermakers who were released in exchange for teaching the Arabs how to make paper. The Arabs wasted no time in improving papermaking techniques - they were probably the first to make paper from linen - and they spread the techniques throughout the Middle East and into Spain.
THE TECHNOLOGY of chemically watermarking paper was first patented in 1959 by Frans V. E. Vaurio for the Customark Corporation, a subsidiary of the Fox River Paper Corporation (now Company) in Appleton, Wisconsin. The Customark Corporation remains the sole patent holder for chemical watermarking of paper, though it licenses the use of the technology to other mills. Since the development of the procedure, it has been used exclusively for the watermarking of stationery letter stock and envelopes. In 1988, approximately 6.5 million sheets (13,000 reams) of paper were chemically watermarked by the Fox River Paper Company alone . Paper conservators in the near future should expect to routinely treat papers with chemical watermarks in archival collections and perhaps in modern art pieces.