The basis of the study of watermarks is that at a given period oftime a specific paper mill would have on hand a limited number ofpapermaking molds, and these molds had a finite useful life.
Imagine the confusion and disbelief when someone appeared with many copies of the same book. There's a story, perhaps apocryphal, about Gutenberg's financial partner - when he offered 20 identical copies of the Bible to a bookseller in Paris, he was quickly forced to flee for his life. People were certain that the only explanation for this bizarre occurrence was that he was in league with the Devil.
Imagine how people saw the vast natural resources in the United States in the mid-1800s. Seemingly endless forests stretched forever. Trees grew everywhere, so a mill could be located just about anywhere as long as it was near a water source. Trees could be harvested any time of the year, so the mills didn't go through seasonal periods of surpluses and shortages as they did with other fiber sources. Trees could be cut as they were needed, unlike fibers like straw which had to be stored in large volumes and which could then spoil. With this new wood pulping technology, the United States must have appeared to be a papermaker's version of nirvana.
Another mark shows the letter "S" placed to one side of a circle;another symmetrically placed letter has apparently fallen off themold:If a researcher is fortunate and matches a watermark with anidentical published mark, then the date and place of use of thecited paper sheet can be used to infer a time period for the use ofthe paper mold which made both sheets.
Leadership by Design is one of the ways that Watermark Retirement Communities is completely unlike any other company. Developed for and by Watermark Retirement Communities, LBD provides a framework and a culture to keep our company continuously improving and moving forward. LBD workshops focus on key areas proven successful in creating an organization that produces outstanding results on a continuous basis.
The basic reference for European watermarks before1600, reproducing 16,000 watermarks out of a collection of 40,000tracings made by Briquet in European archives (not includingarchives in England, Russia, Spain, or Portugual).
The Keys to Success that were noted above are the key elements in managers’ bonus plans. The level of their achievement dictates the monetary acknowledgment they receive, thus directly tying performance to reward. This assists in maintaining a consistent alignment of goals between Watermark, the senior management of the community and department-level managers. As priorities shift, key indicators can be adjusted, creating a dynamic rewards system that can adapt to the changing needs of the community.
By comparing the paper andwatermarks that we find, we can learn to recognize the papers thatreoccur and those that are uncommon or from a posthumous reprinting.
Traditional watermarks become more translucent when wet. The chemical watermarks also reflected the color of the underlying trays to an unusual degree. While drying, the watermarks appeared to be opaque and diffusing into the paper. Once completely dry, the watermarks again became translucent and the papers returned to being opaque.
More often than not, we will not find an exactmatch because there are probably about a million watermarks before1800, and perhaps only 4% of them have been published.
It is considered characteristic of the ItalianPiedmont and Swiss mills, and probably results from the manner inwhich the chain line wires are attached to wooden slats below themold surface, as discussed in an article by Theo Gerardy.In summary, we must exactly match a detailed image of watermarkto a watermark of known place and date of use in order to say wehave identified it.
After drying, there was some blurring of the watermarks in most of the papers. This loss of sharpness seemed to increase with longer immersion times. It was particularly apparent in the GE shadowmark sample and least apparent in the nonbrightened JCC sample.
While another Claude print lacks awatermark, it clearly shows the same channeled effect and is thus ona closely related paper. Channeled paper is also found on someSchongauer prints.
Under short-wave ultraviolet illumination, the watermarks appeared faint and indistinct from the paper. A fluorescing component or components from the watermark or paper may have been solubilized and redeposited across the surface, shielding the watermark from the ultraviolet source.