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APA style requires that all references in a document are to be cited in-text, and that all in-text citations are compiled in a reference list at the end of the document. In-text citations appear within the body of the document and include details such as author(s) family name, year of publication, and page number(s) (if applicable). The reference list must provide full details of all in-text citations, and be arranged alphabetically by author.

Wang, J, Wood, Z & Worboys, M 2016, 'Conflict in pedestrian networks' in T Sarjakoski, MY Santos, LT Sarjakoski (eds), Geospatial data in a changing world selected papers of the 19th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 261-278.

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This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes.

The Writing Center, located in Whitman College, is also a key resource for students wanting to learn more about proper note-taking and citation practices. To make an appointment, visit or drop in without an appointment Sunday through Thursday evenings.

Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use "2.5% NaCl" rather than "test 1".) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use to help organize your presentation by experiment.

Using Word Definitions in Formal Essays: Incorporation and Citation

In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior.

Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section.

What is MLA Style?
Frequently Asked Questions about MLA Style - Including:
Should I use underlining or italics?
How many spaces should I leave after a period or other concluding mark of
How do I create the indentation that the MLA shows for a works-cited list?
From Modern Language Association (MLA) handbook

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How to integrate sources into your paper


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If you include the author's name(s) in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "Austin (1996) includes valuable references to ...." or "The examples given by Li and Crane (1993) on web addresses ...".

Heath and Scott (cited in Hosany & Martin 2012) claim that...

A side note on titles and abbreviations: This abbreviated title rule does not always apply for the body of your paper. The OED may be called the OED in the body because, although it is an abbreviated form, people actually call it this (at least this is my explanation). Generally, abbreviated titles are only acceptable within citations, e.g. a paper on Love's Labour's Lost, while referring to the entire title in the prose, may, after the play has been identified, thereafter cite simply by using LLL followed by the act, scene and line number(s). However, the author would not say, "When the acting company first performed LLL?"-this is too informal, and while I have seen it done, it is rare and best avoided for our purposes. When we get into writing papers that compare and contrast multiple texts from this course, you'll be able to abbreviate Fight Club as FC and The Talented Mr. Ripley as TTMR in your citations, after the first time you've identified the text by its full name. In general, one word titles are not truncated to a single letter, so we won't be representing Vertigo as V.

3. Citation details of where the image was reprinted from.

I've attached the OED's entry for sympathy as a noun; as you'll see, there are four main definitions, and #1 and #3 have sub-definitions. The citation I use above shows my reader that I am referring first to the entry for sympathy as a noun, secondly that it is definition number 3, and thirdly that it is sub-definition d. Citing so specifically is crucial, especially since differences between various definitions can often be maddeningly subtle on first examination. If you are using a definition to shape or support your argument, you want to eliminate any possibility of misunderstanding on the part of your reader.

1. within the written body of your paper, and

The audience for a white paper can be the general public or multiple companies that seek solutions to their problems or needs. Typically, you will not know your audience personally, unlike when you write a recommendation report for your client. And yet, in order to persuade your audience, you need to focus on their needs. If you can address the problems that your readers want to solve, they will read your white paper for a solution. Otherwise, your white paper may not be read. It is important to emphasize your readers' interests rather than your interests, as shown in the example below:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

The easiest way to handle citations and references is to follow the same rules you would for a paper, and do an in-text citation within the sentence or bullet point, and have a Works Cited page on your last slide.

1. within the written body of your paper, and

For example, give the year of publication for a book, the year and month of publication for a monthly magazine or journal, and the year, month, and day for a newspaper or daily periodical.

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