Andrew J. Kruger, Kathleen B. Hrovat, Stavra A. Xanthakos, Thomas H. Inge. . (2013) Preparation of a severely obese adolescent for significant and long-term weight loss: an illustrative case. 29:8, 835-839.
An alternative dependent variable that is substituted in for Y in Eq. is a binary variable indicating whether or not the members of the household ate foods that are less preferred and normally not eaten. This is, therefore, a subjective measure relating to personal preference and not with regards to foods that are generally less preferred in Ethiopia, thus rendering a list redundant. Even though this variable is binary, the estimation strategy is still a household fixed effects technique rather than Probit or Logit, in which the inclusion of fixed effects is difficult due to the incidental parameters problem. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity across households is necessary, however, in order to capture the effects of time invariant preferences and tastes in households as outlined above. Note that an interaction term between being Orthodox and an observation being from the first round of the survey is included as the period of data collection took place during lent, which, for religious reasons, has an effect on the types of food but not the number of meals eaten by Orthodox Christians.
Kebeles, the smallest administrative units, were systematically selected in such a way that the nearest and the farthest kebeles from major towns were incorporated. The average distance of sites from the kebele centre is 15 km but varies from 3 km for Bilisuma to 42 km for Gorebella. The sampling frame was obtained from the administrative units of the kebeles and in cases where complete lists of households were not available in the kebele offices they were obtained from health and agricultural extension offices. Within each selected kebele, a random sampling technique was employed to select households. For the rural sample, it was assumed that kebeles have approximately the same population size and 25 households were included from each kebele. For the urban sample, due to the big variation in the size of towns in terms of population, the number of households to be randomly drawn from the list of households obtained from kebele administrative offices (in the case of large cities) or from city municipalities (in the case of smaller towns) was determined proportional to the size of the town.
One mitigation measure to combat climate change is increased use of biofuels, which, by displacing food crops from agricultural land, could lead to increased food prices. Biofuels have been implicated as one cause of the 2007 rise in global food prices (, and it has been suggested that the European Union (EU) Biofuels Directive could slow down or reverse the long-term trend of declining world food prices (). The production of biofuels in many countries is driven by policy measures such as tax exemptions, investment subsidies, and obligatory blending of biofuels with mineral fuels (). Therefore, the future impact of biofuels will depend heavily upon how these policy measures are applied. Furthermore, technological changes, such as the development of second generation biofuels, that may have lower impacts upon existing agriculture, will also play a key role.
Although short-term weight loss is readily achieved through dietary restriction, only a small minority of obese people maintain diet-induced weight loss in the long term. A multitude of hormones, peptides, and nutrients are involved in the homeostatic regulation of body weight, many of which are perturbed after weight loss. Whether these changes represent a transient compensatory response to an energy deficit is unknown, but an important finding of this study is that many of these alterations persist for 12 months after weight loss, even after the onset of weight regain, suggesting that the high rate of relapse among obese people who have lost weight has a strong physiological basis and is not simply the result of the voluntary resumption of old habits.
Besides the ones already mentioned, our work is related to the analyses of D’Souza and Jolliffe (), Iannotti and Robles (), Iannotti et al. (), and Jensen and Miller (), but differs in the methodological approach as panel rather than cross-sectional data are used and the possibility of controlling for unobserved time-invariant heterogeneity across households is exploited. The paper is structured as follows: the following section gives a brief overview over the history of food price volatility and food price inflation in Ethiopia. Subsequently, the survey design and data are described. The empirical approach and results are discussed before the paper concludes.
Stopping by from Wednesdays Whatsits. Great printables. So nice of you to share them. I’ve kept a food journal for a long time. I’m pretty old-fashioned when it comes to tracking food. I have tried all the online and phone apps only to go back to pen and paper. I think it is because I spend all day online working from home so the thought of spending more time online to plug in food sort of drives me batty at times lol
Log returns of quarterly wholesale prices in Addis Ababa before and during the survey period. The shaded area denotes the time span of the survey used in this paper. Source: FAO GIEWS (2013)
This review was not a formal systematic review due to the breadth of the topic. Instead, we began by conducting interviews with eight of the authors (G.B., A.B.A.B., A.D., S.F.-T., M.H., P.R.H., G.N., and K.W.W.) who were chosen for their knowledge of a range of issues related to climate change and food security. The aim of these interviews was to ascertain how climate change might interact with food and then to identify the main research projects and key papers dealing with these issues. This allowed us to set out the main structure of the review. The results of the interviews were used to begin to identify the main issues to be explored, in conjunction with a broad-based literature review using . To fill in important gaps, we carried out specific focused searches in additional databases [including MEDLINE (), , , and ] to find key references. Initially, the search focused on reviews in the relevant areas published in the peer-reviewed and gray literature. These were then supplemented through specific searches for additional relevant primary and secondary research. The results were summarized, with established answers and remaining questions highlighted. The first draft of the review summarizing the work was sent to the eight experts for comments. These comments were incorporated into the review and further searching of the literature conducted if required. Finally, the review was evaluated by experts from the U.K. Food Standards Agency (FSA).
Agricultural adaptation to and mitigation against climate change will lead to the development of new crops and livestock species bred or engineered to survive in different climatic conditions or emit less GHGs. It will be important to monitor these new commodities to ensure that nutritional quality is maintained. For example, in the United Kingdom, a study using data from a long-term wheat-farming experiment found that since the mid-1960s the goal of increased food production was achieved at the expense of lower levels of zinc, iron, copper and magnesium in wheat ().
Taken together, these findings indicate that in obese persons who have lost weight, multiple compensatory mechanisms encouraging weight gain, which persist for at least 1 year, must be overcome in order to maintain weight loss. These mechanisms would be advantageous for a lean person in an environment where food was scarce, but in an environment in which energy-dense food is abundant and physical activity is largely unnecessary, the high rate of relapse after weight loss is not surprising. Furthermore, the activation of this coordinated response in people who remain obese after weight loss supports the view that there is an elevated body-weight set point in obese persons and that efforts to reduce weight below this point are vigorously resisted. In keeping with this theory, studies have shown that after adjustment for body composition, people whose weight is normal and those who are obese have similar energy requirements for weight maintenance and equivalent reductions in energy expenditure after weight loss. If this is the case, successful management of obesity will require the development of safe, effective, long-term treatments to counteract these compensatory mechanisms and reduce appetite. Given the number of alterations in appetite-regulating mechanisms that have been described so far, a combination of medications will probably be required. Several such combinations are undergoing evaluation, but none have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Bariatric surgery has well-documented favorable effects on appetite-mediating hormones, hunger, body weight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and mortality. However, because of the attendant costs and long waiting periods, bariatric surgery is not readily accessible to most people.
The decisions to buy and sell grains are determined by the prices of grains, however, and therefore endogenous so the differentiated effects are difficult to assess: Aksoy and Isik-Dikmelik () found that price increases lead to an implicit income transfer from (on average better-off) urban citizens to (on average poorer) rural households, but they also lead to an absolute real income reduction for the poorest part of the rural population. While price increases may improve nutrition security for some of the poor rural population, they may simultaneously further worsen the food supply of those who are already food insecure. For this reason the effects on urban and rural households are investigated separately and differentiated effects within each sample allowed for.