Inhalant abuse should be a consideration in any child, adolescent or young adult who dies of inexplicable aspiration of his or her gastric contents. It should also be a consideration for traumatic deaths in this age group. Inhalants can be associated with virtually any type of trauma including motor vehicle crashes, falls, fire, suicide and violence.
Authors: Dipl.-Phys. Bernhard Vogel, Dr. Stephan Großwig, GESO GmbH & Co. Projekt KG, Jena, und Dipl.-Math. Bernd Jatho, Dr. Ulrich Palzer, GIB Gesellschaft für Innovation im Bauwesen mbH, Weimary adding a special foam concentrate and compressed air to water the One Seven MINING system produces compressed air foam (CAF). The foaming agent is a surfactant and a non-flammable substance unlike phenol or polyurethane. By inundating a mine space with foam it displaces any explosive gases and prevents oxygen contact with the fuel. The foam has strong penetrating and lasting inhibitory properties. In spite of many efforts being made to improve occupational safety, the risk of fire and explosions in mines remains due to a risk of spontaneous combustion of the materials, e.g. coal or waste, and because of the presence of explosive gases and dusts, e.g. methane gas and coal dust. The CAF system can be used preventively to cover dangerous areas in the goaf, preventing fire damps and dust explosions. It can also be used for actual fire suppression both on machinery and on the coal itself. Examples for both preventive and active firefighting will be given in this article. One Seven MINING has references from applications in the Czech Republic, in Germany, China and Turkey.
Inhalant abuse related fatalities are underreported because they may not be recognized as such or because of a perceived stigma. Doctors and medical staff are traditionally one of the professions most focused on their continuing medical education using Medscape, medical journals, and other resources available to them, but even with all of that research it can be difficult for them to accurately identify signs of inhalant use. Therefore, The National Inhalant Prevention Coalition (NIPC) is providing background information and guidelines to assist medical examiners, coroners, pathologists and toxicologists to better understand, to recognize, to document and to accurately report inhalant deaths.
Select a topic of your choice that is related to the fire service (fire prevention, fire suppression, rescue, hazardous materials response, emergency medical services response, arson investigation, incident command, homeland defense, etc.). It is recommended that you select a topic that is general enough that finding references on the subject will not be a problem. Research the topic using magazine articles, textbooks, and/or the Internet, and write a ten-page double-spaced paper on the topic. You are required to use at least five outside references in the construction of the research paper.
Produced by the Southern Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention Campaign and distributed in the south, this is one of several posters featuring artwork in a style frequently associated with Pink Panther cartoons. (The Pink Panther first appeared in 1964.)
Department of Health and Human Services (2009). Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fires Fighters When Fighting Fires in Unoccupied Structures. Washington, DC: NIOSH ALERT.
The recommendations discussed above are significant not only to this particular fire service business, but also to every individual who wishes to reduce the number of fire-related deaths or trauma. Take for instance the wearing of protective clothing on the fire site. The marking of abandoned structures plays an integral part in ensuring the safety of the fire fighter. The marked buildings or structure sensitizes the crew to the potential dangers associated with the building. Normally, this is possible by the use of placards or posters at the entrance, or any other opening, to warn the crew. Moreover, to ensure the efficient functioning of the incident command system, there must be regular communication between the Incident Commander and the fire fighters. This is to provide adequate information concerning the fire site, to the Incident Commander for proper coordination. Nevertheless, this can only be possible if proper communicative mechanisms are taken into consideration, such as the use of portable radios that are clear and free from any mechanical defect. This paper also takes into consideration the health of the fire fighters, more specifically, cardiac-related disease. This includes also the significance of the physical fitness of the fire fighters, an initiative that addresses the health of an individual in the workplace (Kuchel, 2007, p. 4).
Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Washington, DC: NIOSH fire fighter investigation and prevention program.
The damage the analyzed incident caused was traumatic and in fact the mistake partially lies with the city authorities and fire service company. It is evident that though fire may be accidental, human negligence many a time aggravates the situation, hence special care is taken to reduce the incidence of fires. Despite the difficulties and challenges facing the NIOSH, it is a most appropriate mechanism and a significant achievement of this 21st century in reducing the deaths of fire fighters. NIOSH can take praise for several successes and the creation of awareness within different groups of people, particularly by the use of FACE (Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation), as an investigative method in workplace fatalities.
In this incident, we realized there was poor observance of the SOPs. To curb this, the fire department must further develop and implement the use of SOPs to purposefully address activities in abandoned and unoccupied buildings. These buildings sometimes contain dangerous materials, some of which are combustible and endanger the lives of fire fighters. The last recommendation was the wearing of personal protective equipment. This equipment is critical in preventing fire fighter fatalities and injuries. The personal protective equipment recommendations address the proper use of the personal alert safety system (PASS) and the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). In this regard, the person in charge of the fire department should routinely inspect, use, and maintain SCBAs to ensure they function properly when required and, finally, ensure that fire fighters wear their SCBAs equipped with integrated PASS whenever they may be exposed to toxic gases. In addition, there is a need for the training of incident commanders, incident safety officers, and fire fighters in the fire department’s plans and SOPs; development and implementation of the fire department policies and SOPs for emergency response; and fire fighting activities in and around unoccupied structures (NIOSH ALERT, 2009, p. 2).
The first recommendation is the marking of hazardous structures. Either the fire service department, or the city authorities, in order to enable the public and the fire fighters to identify the dangerous buildings and take necessary precautions, can carry out this initiative. This is significant due to there being some structures that are risky to people’s health and safety. One could argue that the death of the fire fighters was attributed to the absence of the marks on the building. This recommendation is implemented by fixing posters or placards at the entrance, or other openings, to alert fire fighters of any possible dangers. The second recommendation is the training of the fire fighters to communicate with the Incident Commander about the interior conditions and provide routine updates. This should be one of the initiatives of the fire department to reduce such cases. Frequent communication between fire fighters and the Incident Commander ensures that the IC has adequate information, including the capricious conditions on the ground. On the other hand, the Incident Commander has operationalized a system that captures relevant incident information to allow a continuous situational assessment, efficient decision-making, and progress of incident management arrangements. Adequate information about the reality on the ground is imperative to the Incident Commander since, on the basis of this information, they will be able to make a decision. The third recommendation is for the fire department to give all the fire fighters radios and offer training on their appropriate application. The purpose of this is to enable the fire fighters to communicate even with other colleagues outside the incident site. Radios are intended to put the firefighter in a better position to scrutinize and broadcast a comprehensible message. These radios should be well taken care of and examined by qualified staff on a routine basis (Mitchell, 2002, p.32).