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To understand about embryonic stem cell.

Several groups have attempted to define growth factors that sustain human ES cells and have attempted to identify culture conditions that reduce the exposure of human ES cells to non human animal products. One important growth factor, bFGF, allows the use of a serum replacement to sustain human ES cells in the presence of fibroblasts, and this medium allowed the clonal growth of human ES cells. A quot;feeder-freequot; human ES system has been developed, in which human ES cells are grown on a protein matrix (mouse Matrigel or Laminin) in a bFGF-containing medium that is previously quot;conditionedquot; by co-culture with fibroblasts. Although this culture system eliminates direct contact of human ES cells with the fibroblasts, it does not remove the potential for mouse pathogens being introduced into the culture via the fibroblasts. Several different sources of human feeder cells have been found to support the culture of human ES cells, thus removing the possibility of pathogen transfer from mice to humans. However, the possibility of pathogen transfer from human to human in these culture systems still remains. More work is still needed to develop a culture system that eliminates the use of fibroblasts entirely, which would also decrease much of the variability associated with the current culture of human ES cells. Sato et al. reported that activation of the Wnt pathway by 6-bromoindirubin3'-oxime (BIO) promotes the self-renewal of ES cells in the presence of bFGF, Matrigel, and a proprietary serum replacement product. Amit et al. reported that bFGF, TGFβ, and LIF could support some human ES cell lines in the absence of feeders. Although there are some questions about how well these new culture conditions will work for different human ES cell lines, there is now reason to believe that defined culture conditions for human ES cells, which reduce the potential for contamination by pathogens, will soon be achieved*.

In 2007, a different type of stem cell was discovered through the use of adult stem cells: iPS cells (adult stem cells are stem cells derived from adult humans; they are not as effective as embryonic stem cells in their natural state)....

 Figure 1.1. How Human Embryonic Stem Cells are Derived.

That is embryonic stem cell research.

The first successful production of embryonic-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells was published in 2006 by Japanese stem cell research scientists who used a microscopic needle to directly inject the genes necessary to reprogram an adult somatic cell into an iPS cell....

Experts in the field of stem cell research promise that this will be the future of medicine; that stem cells will be the cure to all the debilitating diseases and afflictions of today, such as Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, cancer and nerve damage.

Write a research paper on Embryonic Stem Cell.

With the development of stem cell research, and the more controversial embryonic stem cell research, every one of these instances could not only be cured, but prevented, within the next half century....

Human embryonic stem (ES) cells capture the imagination because they are immortal and have an almost unlimited developmental potential (Fig. 1.1: ). After many months of growth in culture dishes, these remarkable cells maintain the ability to form cells ranging from muscle to nerve to blood—potentially any cell type that makes up the body. The proliferative and developmental potential of human ES cells promises an essentially unlimited supply of specific cell types for basic research and for transplantation therapies for diseases ranging from heart disease to Parkinson's disease to leukemia. Here we discuss the origin and properties of human ES cells, their implications for basic research and human medicine, and recent research progress since August 2001, when President George W. Bush allowed federal funding of this research for the first time. A previous report discussed progress prior to June 17, 2001 (.)

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Debates have exploded over every aspect of stem cell research.


Unfortunately, Embryonic Stem Cell Research has a dark side.

Embryonic stem cell research is a part of biomedical science and has the potential to ease the suffering of sick people by curing diseases and defects, creating organs and tissue for patients needing transplants or skin grafts, regenerating axons in spinal cord injuries, and creating new treatments, drugs, and immunizations....

The discoveries of embryonic stem, ES, cells in 1998 by James A.

In a desperate attempt to avoid using embryonic stem cells, scientists are uncovering different methods of converting non-embryonic cells into stem cells.

Bush banned the further funding of embryonic stem cell research.

“Despite the news in 2006 that researchers had found a way to harvest human embryonic stem cells without having to destroy embryos, controversy still surrounds potentially life-saving stem cell research.” (Gruen, 2007).

Notably, embryonic stem cells are harvested in a strange way....

Due to the strong emotional responses to some of the subject matter by the pro-lifers and certain religions and politics in general, I will attempt to explain different sides of embryonic stem cell research (ESC)....

Again, please support funding for embryonic stem cell research.

As USA Today quoted him saying in March, after he stopped restricting federal funding for stem cell research, "At this moment, the full promise of stem cell research remains unknown and should not be overstated....

Stem cell research is a very controversial, yet promising study.

are derived from at a developmental stage before the time that implantation would normally occur in the uterus. normally occurs in the oviduct, and during the next few days, a series of cleavage divisions occur as the embryo travels down the oviduct and into the uterus. Each of the cells (blastomeres) of these cleavage-stage embryos are , i.e. they do not look or act like the specialized cells of the adult, and the blastomeres are not yet committed to becoming any particular type of differentiated cell. Indeed, each of these blastomeres has the potential to give rise to any cell of the body. The first event in humans occurs at approximately five days of development, when an outer layer of cells committed to becoming part of the placenta (the ) separates from the inner cell mass (ICM). The ICM cells have the potential to generate any cell type of the body, but after implantation, they are quickly depleted as they differentiate to other cell types with more limited developmental potential. However, if the ICM is removed from its normal embryonic environment and cultured under appropriate conditions, the ICM-derived cells can continue to proliferate and replicate themselves indefinitely and still maintain the developmental potential to form any cell type of the body (quot;pluripotencyquot;; see Fig. 1.2: ). These , ICM-derived cells are ES cells.

Stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they can be converted into other.

Many people think that embryonic stem cell research should be stopped regardless of the many benefits it may bring, but the research should be expanded and be considered eligible for federal funding.
There are three main types of stem cells.

1998 marked the first removal of a human embryonic stem cell.

The first type of ... to have the ability to transform into each of the major cell types but may not be able to multiply as much as embryonic stem cells.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCS) are the most promising of all stem cells.

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