As you can see, the lithograph was severely stained (due to contact with an acidic material when rolled). Several long tears extended into the text and the edges were worn and tattered due to being crushed during storage. Conservation treatment included surface cleaning to remove dirt and other accretions from the paper. The photograph of Lincoln was temporarily removed so the print could be treated more thoroughly. After careful testing, the print was humidified and immersed in a series of water baths. This helped reduce the acidity in the paper by removing soluble acids. As a result, the associated discoloration was also removed, making the paper appear lighter. However, the dark brown stains required further treatment – exposure to controlled artificial light while immersed in alkaline water as well as local application of a dilute chemical bleaching agent. Each stain-reducing treatment was followed with a water bath to rinse out products that could potentially harm the paper. The lithograph was then backed with a double layer of Japanese mulberry paper using wheat starch paste. These materials are strong, chemically stable, and easily reversible – requirements for any material used in a conservation treatment. The photograph of Lincoln was readhered to the front of the lithograph using wheat starch paste and the Emancipation Proclamation was returned to the client in a much-improved state.
This copy of the Emancipation Proclamation was issued by the U.S Sanitary Commission on October 26, 1863 to help raise money for wounded soldiers. A note from Lincoln at the top describes his donation of the original handwritten draft of the famous document at the request of the Sanitary Commission and his desire to support the comfort and relief of the soldiers by doing so. The Sanitary Commission was a volunteer organization established to provide sanitary and medical assistance to the Union volunteer forces during the Civil War. The organization was primarily run and staffed by women, including Clara Bolton, Dorothea Dix, and Louisa May Alcott.
President Abraham Lincoln is credited with issuing the first directive called an "executive order" in 1862. Approximately 13,200 executive orders have been issued since then. shows that the number of executive orders issued by recent Presidents has not matched that of Presidents in the early and mid-20th century. This is true even if the figures are adjusted to reflect the length of service in office. President Franklin Roosevelt, who served for over three terms, still issued more executive orders per year than did any other President.
DiLorenzo’s book, The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War, he writes of Lincoln’s policies and plans for America.
We are extremely selective towards writers who are willing to work for our company as high quality is a rule for us, and we cannot undermine our customers’ trust. Writers and editors are obliged to pass multiple tests and complete many sample papers to be accepted to our writers’ team. That is why the papers created by our talented and experienced writers conform to high standards of academic writing.
At the White House, President and Mrs. Abraham Lincoln welcomed the new year by hosting the customary holiday reception. For hours, they greeted visitors by the hundreds—"gorgeous dignitaries," military officers, and "diplomats in gold lace," according to one local newspaper—just as presidents and first ladies had done for years in peace and war alike. But this was to be no ordinary New Year's Day at the White House. Today, history would be made.
In mid-afternoon, the President quietly slipped out of the thronged East Room and walked upstairs to his office on the second floor of the executive mansion. Waiting for him there was the Secretary of State, William H. Seward, and members of Lincoln's staff. On the large table in the center of the room, around which the Cabinet customarily gathered for its regular meetings, sat an official-looking document, written out in beautiful penmanship by a professional "engrosser." The room was quiet, although the muffled sounds of music and reverie from downstairs could doubtless still be heard. Solemnly, Lincoln sat down at the table, the document spread out before him. The moment was at hand. Now, at last, the President would sign the most important order of his administration, perhaps of the century: the Emancipation Proclamation. "The scene was wild and grand. Joy and gladness exhausted all forms of expression, from shouts of praise to joys and tears." That was how Frederick Douglass described the moment when the words of Lincoln's Proclamation first came over the telegraph wires that day.
Although Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, he released the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation to the public three months before, on September 22, 1862....
On this New Year's afternoon, Abraham Lincoln took pen in hand, dipped it in ink, and then, unexpectedly, paused and put the pen down. To his surprise, and to the surprise of all the witnesses looking on, Lincoln’s hand was trembling. It was not, the President later insisted, "because of any uncertainty or hesitation on my part." As he put it at that decisive moment: "I never in my life felt more certain that I am doing right than I do in signing this paper." But greeting so many New Year's guests downstairs had taken a toll. "I have been shaking hands since 9 o'clock this morning, and my hand is almost paralyzed," Lincoln explained. And he did not want his signature to look hasty. "If my name ever goes into history it will be for this act," he told the people gathered in the room, "and my whole soul is in it. If my hand trembles when I sign the proclamation, all who examine the document hereafter will say, 'He hesitated.'"
Hesitation was the last thing on his mind. "The South had fair warning that if they did not return...I would strike at this pillar of their strength," Lincoln insisted. "The promise must now be kept." When at last he felt the circulation in his hand reviving, Lincoln again took up his pen. Slowly but firmly, he wrote "Abraham Lincoln"at the bottom of the document that declared all slaves in the Confederacy "forever free." With that, the man who would be known thereafter as "The Great Emancipator"glanced at his effort, looked up, smiled, and cheerfully declared: "That will do."
Based on primary and secondary source research, the paper combines these two ideas into an independent judgment on this question, concluding that slaves provided the pressure to force Lincoln's hand, but the act of emancipation was still ultimately issued by Lincoln, so he should be credited with freeing the slaves.
Nonetheless, what Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation did—and did not do—has been the subject of heated debate ever since. Clearly, Lincoln believed it would change the course of both the Civil War and the peace that would follow. And so did the painters, sculptors, engravers, and lithographers who soon began portraying him as a Modern Moses in a host of artistic tributes to his accomplishment. Though the graphic arts proved surprisingly slow to celebrate emancipation—waiting until the election campaign of 1864 to issue their first, tentative tributes to the document, and withholding heroic tributes to the Emancipator himself until his assassination and martyrdom in 1865—popular culture ultimately embraced Lincoln as a liberator, and for nearly a century most historians agreed that Lincoln deserved the accolades.