The concept of indoctrination was also of great interest to analyticphilosophers of education, for, it was argued, getting clear aboutprecisely what constitutes indoctrination also would serve to clarifythe border that demarcates it from acceptable educationalprocesses. Unfortunately, ordinary language analysis did not produceunanimity of opinion about where this border was located, and rivalanalyses were put forward. Thus, whether or not an instructionalepisode was a case of indoctrination was determined by the contenttaught, the intention of the instructor, the methods of instructionthat had been used, the outcomes of the instruction, or of course bysome combination of these. (Snook 1972) The danger of restrictinganalysis to ordinary language (“normal English usage”) wasrecognized early on by Scheffler, whose preferred view of analysisemphasized
In the summer of 2005 we organised a six-day walkshop with 17 participants at and around Hardangervidda, the mountain plain east of Bergen. The event was called “Quality in Nature and Technology” and combined three purposes. First (and foremost) it was an ELSA research walkshop, centred around philosophical perspectives on the concept of quality. Secondly, it qualified as a PhD course on philosophy of science and ethics (provided that the PhD students also produced a written essay after the course). Finally, it was also an outreach/public engagement event in that we organized an open meeting on ethical aspects of technology in the village of Tyssedal, which was the final destination of the walkshop. The combination of purposes made this event an ambitious one in terms of budget, planning and the complexity of the logistics. Also in terms of distances, the walkshop was quite ambitious, covering 67 kilometres in changing terrains during the 3 days of hiking with a group of researchers and PhD students from many countries and disciplines, some of which had little mountain experience. In part intended by us, the walkshop had the character of being a physical and mental challenge for many of the participants, where physical and intellectual struggle coincided and in which everybody was ultimately rewarded with arriving at the final destination, at least in the geographical sense.
Intends to develop, coordinate, and define ways that electronic and information technology business strategies can assist the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), interagency committees and other federal agencies to enhance access and delivery of information and services to citizens, business partners, employees, agencies, and government entities.
Provides information about Project NEThics and resources for information technology issues, including information on Mailing Lists and our own Fact Sheets on hot topics like spam and file sharing.
The value of both using the outdoors and walking as a way to stimulate reflective thinking have been appreciated and documented in various fields for some time. There has, for example, been a long association between the practices of walking and philosophy, first recorded in writing as early as Aristotle’s peripatetics. This connection was, however, significantly strengthened by Rousseau and the Romantics, where it was specifically combined with critical consideration of the role of science and technology in society and the form of nature-culture relations (Solnit ). Also within the philosophical tradition, Heidegger and phenomenology have taught that “dwelling” in a place is more than merely observing it and that this can be a matter of human development and identity—perhaps even Dasein and authenticity for some. In recent years, human geographers have expanded on this by not only giving particular attention to notions of space and place, but also to the act of walking itself and how it relates to embodied experience and anthropological fieldwork (e.g. Lee and Ingold ). Using the outdoors for fieldwork has of course long been recognised by natural historians, biologists and ecologists as providing unique access to certain types of knowledge and understanding, while environmental and outdoor education have also demonstrated long experience with using the outdoors to supplement classroom based teaching, explore environmental values, and facilitate the development of caring ecological citizens (Sandell and Öhman ).
In addition to providing a general introduction to the subject of copyrightethics, I hope I have shown that thinking about copyright cannot be divorcedfrom the history of social practices which originally constituted it. Wecannot begin to understand the competing claims of private property ownersand society, unless we look at the tension between these competing interestsin historical detail. On the other hand, such a history is in no way prescriptiveor prospective. Philosophical approaches to copyright are needed and Iconsidered two: Bringsford's and Hettinger's. However, we will not succeedby merely attending to the logical features of copying (as Bringsjord does).Our ethical intuitions do not possess such precision or generality. Failingthat, we might hope that the philosophical tradition justifying propertywill guide us in thinking about intellectual property. But Hettinger successfullyshows that the tradition cannot do this. I suggest the reason for thisis, in part, that abstract justifications are too divorced from actualsocial practices to arbitrate between competing ethical values. In thecase of copyright ethics we need to look at current and emerging technologyand try to understand how our best intuitions about rewarding personalachievement and allowing public access can be satisfied.
It is important to be as prepared as possible for any potentially unplanned situations that may occur. In a basic sense this includes carrying first aid kits and having information about participants’ medical history and insurance details. When we have tested the trails during our preparation phase, we have also taken care to identify the areas with and without mobile phone reception and the potential exit routes during each day should something unexpected happen. To perform this level of planning and be able to respond to unexpected events that may arise, it is also advantageous to have more than one person involved. One of the most important elements of being prepared for the unexpected is that the organisers are flexible enough in their thinking and programming to allow for adaptation to occur should weather conditions or illness/injury require it, or if new questions or lines of discussion unexpectedly emerge through the process. Rather than following a strict timetable and programme like a workshop, a walkshop needs to explicitly embrace a more flexible and adaptable attitude. In addition to this flexibility, organisers must also be attentive and sensitive to potential conflicts, emotional instabilities or physical limitations and be willing to take measures to directly address these should they arise.
In general then, I recommend that information producers see themselvesas socially obligated to move toward technologies which facilitate thewide distribution of their works. At the same time, consumers should allowthat the new information technologies they use obligate them to considerthe effect of their use on information producers.
Does the proposed program address a key audience and an important aspect or important need in research education? Is there convincing evidence in the application that the proposed program will significantly advance the stated goal of the program?
The challenge in copyright ethics is, on the one hand, not to hold onto traditional practices when change is immanent and desirable, and, onthe other hand, to reconstruct the traditional values in the new technologicalconfiguration. The move to an absolutely proprietary information systemwould represent a failure to meet the second challenge, and the retrenchmentof the publishing industry and traditional fair use advocates would representa failure to meet the first challenge. A flat-fee clearinghouse for photoduplicatingof print materials appears to be a good solution because it would add anominal charge to users (which would be more than offset by likely decreasesin the cost of duplication) while allowing producers to recover costs ata high margin of profit (because they would not actually have to producethe copies). A computerized billing service could be established in majorcopy centers (Kinko's Copies stores, corporate copying facilities, anduniversity copy centers) while leaving alone incidental copiers such aslibrary patrons.
To aid in this process of giving participants enough information to prepare for the type of event a walkshop is, we have typically provided participants with a list of things they should bring (e.g. rainproof jacket, worn-in hiking shoes, relaxed cabin clothes etc.) as well as things they will not need (e.g. computers, dress clothes, heavy books etc.) and a recommendation of the maximum pack weight they should consider carrying (e.g. 8–10 kg). Prior to the event it is also worthwhile to consider what (if any) reading material may be provided. We have sometimes used novels as required reading (e.g. The Zen of Motorcycle Maintenance and The Road). These have covered themes of relevance to our walkshops and while they have therefore provided a creative way into the matters of concern and a common reference everyone may refer to, we have also seen them work incredibly successfully as icebreakers for conversation. For example, for the Aurlandsdalen Walkshop, participants were met at an airport and had to then take a 3 h train ride together to the start of the track. Since the participants had not got to know each other at this point and the walkshop had not formally begun, many used the set novel as a way to begin conversations and pass the time on the train ride. Another way in which we have approached reading materials has been to ask each participant to bring something relevant to the theme (which could be a scientific article, a poem, a newspaper article etc.) to contribute to a travelling library that is made available each night should participants wish to read something. While many of our participants have tended to spend the evenings talking together rather than reading from this travelling library, it has often received use in the mornings by early risers looking for a quiet activity to do while waiting for the rest of the group to join them. Since the contributions in the travelling library have been marked with the name of the contributor, this also creates an opening for the piece to be discussed on the trail by those that have read it with those that brought it to the event.