Students Here the question arises, what does this type of drug do? Stimulants are those drugs which speed up the body’s nervous system and create a feeling of energy. Stimulants have the opposite effect of depressants. When the effects of a stimulant wear off, the user is typically left with feelings of sickness and a loss of energy. Constant use of such drugs can have very negative effects on the user. Types of drugs include:
Animal and human laboratory research has shown that males and females often differ in their behavioral and biological responses to drugs. Animal studies, for example, have found male-female differences in the motor-activating effects of stimulants, speed of acquisition of drug self-administration, the amount of drug self-administered, the percentage of subjects that acquire self-administration, escalation of drug self-administration, motivation for self-administration, and the tendency to relapse following drug cessation. Further, factors that affect those outcomes often do so differently in males and females. Human and animal pharmacokinetic studies often report male and female differences, as do studies of adverse effects of abused drugs. Both human and animal studies have established that the menstrual/estrous cycle is a determinant of drug action, both pharmacokinetic and behavioral. Growing numbers of brain-imagining studies are reporting male-female differences. Despite the important progress made in laboratory sex/gender-based research, it is in an early stage and most researchers fail to analyze their data by sex/gender.
Numerous male-female differences in cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence have been reported, including differences in use patterns and dependence susceptibility, cessation rates and relapse rates, effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapies and other pharmacotherapies, the role of non-nicotine factors, nicotine metabolism, and pharmacogenetics. Indeed, research on male-female differences in nicotine dependence has exceeded that of other drugs of abuse and thus may serve to guide research on other abused drugs. Nevertheless, many gaps remain in our understanding of male-female differences in the nature of nicotine addiction and its prevention and treatment, including factors specific to females such as the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause status, weight control concerns and other barriers to cessation.
Male-female differences have been identified in various aspects of drug abuse treatment and services research including barriers to treatment, treatment entry characteristics, treatment and services needs, and predictors of treatment engagement, retention, and outcomes. Research often finds that treatments are not equally efficacious in males and females. These male-female differences in treatment research, along with research showing male-female differences in the determinants and predictors of drug abuse, raise the possibility that even when treatments are shown to be equally effective for males and females, outcomes could be improved by the addition of gender-based approaches that are informed by this growing body of research.
among persons living in the U.S with a diagnosis of HIV infection at the end of 2010, injection drug use (IDU) was associated with a greater percentage of cases among women than among men (). The HIV/AIDS disease process has been found to differ between males and females; for example, an HIV-infected woman with half the amount of virus circulating in the bloodstream as an infected man will progress to a diagnosis of AIDS in about the same time as the man despite comparable immune parameters (e.g., CD4 counts). Additionally, there is evidence that neurocognitive measures may differ between HIV+ drug using males and females and that they may be differentially impacted by HIV risk reduction interventions. Although drug abuse plays a greater role in HIV among women than men, major gaps remain in knowledge regarding male-female differences in the role of drug abuse in HIV/AIDS, including the unique needs of women and how to address them in prevention and treatment efforts.
The committee will evaluate the involvement of live vertebrate animals as part of the scientific assessment according to the following five points: 1) proposed use of the animals, and species, strains, ages, sex, and numbers to be used; 2) justifications for the use of animals and for the appropriateness of the species and numbers proposed; 3) adequacy of veterinary care; 4) procedures for limiting discomfort, distress, pain and injury to that which is unavoidable in the conduct of scientifically sound research including the use of analgesic, anesthetic, and tranquilizing drugs and/or comfortable restraining devices; and 5) methods of euthanasia and reason for selection if not consistent with the AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia. For additional information on review of the Vertebrate Animals section, please refer to the .
The statistical association between alcohol or drug abuse with crime seems to be convincing when examined at the first glance; however, it is not possible to make a conclusion concerning a distinct cause and effect association between the two asp...
If a lot of kids start using drugs, the other kids who stay clean may feel pressured to fit in, people who use drugs may suggest for their friends to try it and create more drug abusers....
(Butler Center for Research) While on certain drugs the abusers may even pose a threat to the community, by reckless driving or starting fights not only could they hurt or kill themselves but also the innocent people around them.
Methodological research is needed in the field of drug abuse prevention on promising data collection, data management, analysis, and reporting techniques. Special attention should be given to the hierarchical and longitudinal nature of most prevention trial data, the adaptation of measures for intervention cohorts over the course of time and development, the measurement and analysis of complex theoretical process models including moderating and mediating variables, the development of adaptive designs, the problems of missing data and attrition when following intervention and control subjects over time, and the development of analytic strategies to determine important features of prevention interventions (i.e., core components). NIDA supports the adaptation and assessment of proven scientific procedures from other disciplines to determine their applicability to drug abuse prevention research such as those from systems science. Specific areas of research include:
Determination of the cost and cost-effectiveness of brief drug abuse and HIV prevention programs that have been integrated into primary care, mental health and community settings, including federally qualified community health centers.
Examining access and adaptability of research-based strategies for training high-risk parents (e.g., those who abuse drugs, or situations where abusive child-rearing practices have been documented through existing service delivery systems).
Studies of the initiation, development, and continuity of community coalitions to prevent drug abuse, and impact on decision making processes (selection and adaptation) about implementation of effective drug abuse prevention strategies in communities.