The Harvard style of citation is coincidentally known as the “author-date” style, because it is the author and the date of publication that are presented in parentheses. This style is similar to APA and eliminates the need for page number in-text references. It is somewhat simpler than APA and MLA and is usually used for smaller papers.
This section provides a quick resource for citing references in papers using the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2009).
It is important, however, to acknowledge the sources of these documents, even though you may never have seen "hard copy" (printed versions) of the file(s) you wish to cite.
For example, give the year of publication for a book, the year and month of publication for a monthly magazine or journal, and the year, month, and day for a newspaper or daily periodical.
style necessitates formatting using the author-date format within the text. When referring to an entire book or an article, or an idea from another work that is not a direct quote, you need only refer to the author and year of the work. The author’s last name and publication year for the source appears within the text, for example (Smith, 2007) under these guidelines. If using a direct quote from another work you must include the page number as part of your citation within the text, (Smith, 2007, p12), which enables the reader to locate the APA quotation if needed. The full reference for each source is included at the end of the paper as part of the reference list.
Be sure you have all of the publication information (author, title, date, pages, etc.) appropriate for each source that you consulted. This information will then be compiled in a bibliography. A bibliography is a listing of all the sources you consulted in writing your research paper. You must closely follow the specific rules for writing bibliographies that are provided in style manuals, the most common ones being , , and . These style manuals will also guide you on the correct way of citing (attributing) each of your sources in the content of your paper (see the section below). Concordia University provides a Web-based tool, , that helps organize the references you find, incorporates citations into the content of your paper, and automatically prepares a bibliography in the style appropriate for the particular assignment.
If you include the author's name(s) in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "Austin (1996) includes valuable references to ...." or "The examples given by Li and Crane (1993) on web addresses ...".
Headings are used based on the level of subordination for example, Section headings will be use level one formatting and its subsections will be in level two format. Level Three format is used for subsections of subsections and so on. The introduction section does not get a heading in APA Style and letters or numbers are not used to indicate heading levels. Number of levels of headings will be determined by the structure and length of your research paper.
You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles.
Last Name, Initials. (Date of Publication). Title of the Book. Place of Publication:
NOTE: Every reference must use a hanging indent like the above example.
A real example follows:
APA guidelines include certain formatting preferences for tables and figures that appear in your essay paper format as well. Vertical lines in your tables are not used so don’t draw them in or try to generate them. The table number is typed above the table title which is placed flush left against the margin and in italics without the use of any period marks. Use your tab function to set table tabs and when including columns of decimal numerals, the decimal points should be aligned.
For every in-text citation there must be a reference listed and vice versa. This reference is a complete acknowledgement of the author(s) and information on how the audience can find the referenced material.
The reference page, similar to the title page, is completely separate from the rest of the paper. After you have finished writing your paper and entered the last period in the document, hit enter to add an extra space, then press the “Insert” button in the tool bar. From the resulting that drop down menu select “Page Break” and a new page will appear where you can record your reference list.
Here is the correct Harvard-style format for this reference type:
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Basic GuidelinesThe purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.