The first meaning is a narrow one and it explains cyber terrorism as the use of IT for threat and manipulation. Very often businessmen, politicians and common people receive email messages which contain threats and shocking content and the purpose of this form of terrorism is to make the victim stressed, frightened and nervous.
Cyberterrorism applies to the use of internet in carrying out deliberate attacks. Common Cyberterrorism identifies with disruption of computer related networks through diverse tools such as viruses, hacking and malware among others. Cyberterrorism is a new concept that came with the innovation of the internet technology. Terrorist individuals and organizations use cyberterrorism in creating panic and alarm. The harmful objectives used by Cyberterrorists are connected to politics, religion, race and ideologies among others.
Kenyan security services detected and deterred terrorist plots during 2016 and responded to dozens of claimed, or presumed, terrorism-related incidents. Kenyan law enforcement did not repeat the widely criticized large-scale security operations of 2014 that appeared to target certain communities. Nonetheless, there were numerous allegations in 2016 that the government or its agents committed arbitrary and unlawful killings, particularly of known or suspected criminals, including terrorists. We refer you to the Department of State’s , for further information.
Government counterterrorism functions were divided among the three branches of the National Police Service – the Kenya Police (including the paramilitary General Service Unit), the Directorate of Criminal Investigations (including the investigative Anti-Terrorism Police Unit, the Bomb Disposal Unit, and the Cyber Forensics Investigative Unit), and the Administration Police (including the Rural Border Patrol Unit) – as well as non-police agencies, such as the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and elements of the Kenya Defense Forces. In May, the government relocated NCTC, NIS, and the National Security Council to the Office of the President. Interagency coordination improved, particularly in information sharing; however, shortages in resources and training, corruption among some personnel, and unclear command and control hindered operational effectiveness. The government continued, with donor support, to work on a single crisis response command center – a result of lessons learned from the 2015 attack at Garissa University College in which al-Shabaab terrorists killed at least 147 people.
Mali began issuing fully biometric passports on April 1, following the March 13 terrorist attack in Grand Bassam, Ivory Coast. The chip-enabled biometric passports will eventually replace previously issued machine-readable passports. Security measures in the machine-readable passports include micro-printing, UV features, and a full-color digital photo. Unfortunately, many of the relatively sophisticated anti-fraud characteristics of the new Malian passport are rendered moot by the relative ease with which imposters can obtain fraudulent documents, such as birth and marriage certificates (which are still chiefly handwritten or typed on carbon paper, then tracked via municipal ledgers that are also handwritten).
Countering Violent Extremism: The Government of Uganda does not have a Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) National Action Plan, as recommended by the UN Secretary-General’s Preventing Violent Extremism Plan of Action. As of November, a small team consisting of counterterrorism security personnel (military and police) was drafting a CVE strategy for the Ministry of Internal Affairs. No civilian government agencies were known to be involved in the drafting process. Muslim religious leaders and civil society groups presented their research and views on drivers of violent extremism to the drafting team. Civilian Government of Uganda representatives attended regional CVE meetings organized under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), an eight-country trade bloc in Africa that includes governments from the Horn of Africa, Nile Valley, and the African Great Lakes and attended U.S. government CVE summits and programs.
Overview: The Government of Uganda continued its significant counterterrorism efforts in East Africa and the Horn of Africa in 2016 and demonstrated strong political will to apprehend suspected terrorists and disrupt terrorist activity in its territory. Uganda participated in regional efforts to neutralize al-Shabaab as the largest troop contributing country to the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM).
Border security in Tanzania remained a challenge for a variety of reasons, including corruption; the lack of a dedicated border security unit in the Tanzania Police Force; and vast, porous borders. Tanzanian authorities continued to process travelers using the U.S.-provided Personal Identification Secure Comparison and Evaluation System (PISCES) border management system at major ports of entry. Tanzania’s NCTC and Immigration Service generally worked to ensure that all border posts had updated terrorist watchlists, although smaller border posts often must check passports against paper copies of the list.
International and Regional Cooperation: Senegal is a member of the United Nations, the AU, ECOWAS, the OIC, and the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership, as well as the Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism. In January, Senegal began a two-year term as an elected member of the UNSC and serves as one of the vice chairs of the committee established pursuant to UNSC resolution 1540 on preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In November, as president of the UNSC, Senegal co-sponsored with Spain an Arria-formula meeting on cybersecurity and terrorist use of the internet. Although not a member of the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF), Senegal participated in the GCTF’s Sahel Region Capacity-Building Working Group. The French and the European Union provided financial support and training to reinforce Senegal’s counterterrorism and border security capabilities. In February, Senegal was the host nation for the AFRICOM Flintlock joint military exercise, which included a law enforcement component, and in November, the Government of Senegal hosted the third annual International Forum on Peace and Security in Africa, which included a strong focus on terrorism issues.
International and Regional Cooperation: In 2016, Nigeria continued high-level participation in regional security and counterterrorism conferences, including President Buhari’s participation in the 26th Summit of African Union Heads of State and Government, held in Ethiopia, and the Second Regional Security Meeting in Abuja, hosted by Nigeria and attended by French and British heads of state, as well as regional leaders from Benin, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. President Buhari participated in the Third Dakar International Forum on Peace and Security in Africa. Nigeria sought greater cooperation and coordination with neighboring countries to counter the effects of BH, yet has resisted taking control of the regional response. Nigeria is also a member of the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) and is a part of the Security Governance Initiative between the United States and six African partners, , first announced in 2014, which offers a comprehensive approach to improving security sector governance and capacity to address threats.
Overview: Mauritania remained an important regional counterterrorism partner in 2016. The Mauritanian government continued to oppose terrorism actively and effectively, building on an approach that hinges on community outreach, improving the capacity of security forces, and securing the country’s borders. As in years past, the Mauritanian authorities cooperated with U.S. counterterrorism efforts and seized opportunities to participate in U.S.-sponsored training on counterterrorism tactics and techniques.
Mali was very cooperative in working with the United States to prevent acts of terrorism against U.S. citizens in the country. The Malian judicial system welcomed ongoing cooperation of U.S. law enforcement agencies in the investigation into the November 20, 2015, attack on the Radisson Hotel in which one U.S. citizen was killed. In October 2015, the U.S. Department of State activated its Antiterrorism Assistance program called SPEAR (Special Program for Embassy Augmentation and Response) as a Quick Reaction Force for Embassy Bamako in the event of a crisis. Since the attack at the Radisson hotel, the U.S. Department of State has signed a multi-year agreement to develop a Crisis Response Team within the Malian Gendarmerie team responsible for responding to these types of attacks in Bamako.