All States allow juveniles to be tried as adults in criminal court under certain circumstances. In many States, the legislature statutorily excludes certain (usually serious) offenses from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court regardless of the age of the accused. In some States and at the Federal level under certain circumstances, prosecutors have the discretion to either file criminal charges against juveniles directly in criminal courts or proceed through the juvenile justice process. The juvenile court's intake department or the prosecutor may petition the juvenile court to waive jurisdiction to criminal court. The juvenile court also may order referral to criminal court for trial as adults. In some jurisdictions, juveniles processed as adults may upon conviction be sentenced to either an adult or a juvenile facility.
The processing of juvenile offenders is not entirely dissimilar to adult criminal processing, but there are crucial differences. Many juveniles are referred to juvenile courts by law enforcement officers, but many others are referred by school officials, social services agencies, neighbors, and even parents, for behavior or conditions that are determined to require intervention by the formal system for social control.
More than a quarter of all prime time shows from the 1960s to the 1990s have centred on subjects of crime or criminal justice, which comprise the biggest single subject matter on television today, across all types of programming (Weigel and Jessor, 1999).
Citizens take part directly in the criminal justice process by reporting crime to the police, by being a reliable participant (for example, a witness or a juror) in a criminal proceeding and by accepting the disposition of the system as just or reasonable. As voters and taxpayers, citizens also participate in criminal justice through the policymaking process that affects how the criminal justice process operates, the resources available to it, and its goals and objectives. At every stage of the process from the original formulation of objectives to the decision about where to locate jails and prisons to the reintegration of inmates into society, the private sector has a role to play. Without such involvement, the criminal justice process cannot serve the citizens it is intended to protect.
There is no single criminal justice system in this country. We have many similar systems that are individually unique. Criminal cases may be handled differently in different jurisdictions, but court decisions based on the due process guarantees of the U.S. Constitution require that specific steps be taken in the administration of criminal justice so that the individual will be protected from undue intervention from the State.
- In Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966), the Supreme Court articulated the procedural requirements for the constitutional safeguards of the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination.
O’Hara, C. E., & O’Hara, G. L. (2013). Fundamentals of criminal investigation. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.
Ranalli, M. D. (2012). Wrongful convictions and officer safety: Shifting the focus to the process. Police Chief, 79(1), 26-29.
Hess, K. M., & Orthmann, C. M. H. (2010). Criminal investigation. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Table of Contents
Defining Criminal Investigation 2
Reasons Influencing Criminal Investigations 3
Purpose of Criminal Investigation 3
Agencies and Issues Concerned with Criminal Investigation 4
"Whether ours shall continue to be a government of laws and notof men is now for Congress and ultimately the American people," ArchibaldCox stated after his firing. Ten days later, impeachment proceedings inthe House of Representatives began as the House Judiciary Committee, chairedby Rep. Peter Rodino, started its preliminary investigation.
Assemble a set of guidelines on conducting preliminary investigation for a criminal case.
Propose one (1) strategy that criminal investigators should take in order to conduct an efficient follow-up investigation. Provide a rationale to support your response.
Select two major crimes (e.g. sudden deaths, sex related crimes) and compare and contrast the key differences in reporting the two major crimes that you selected.
Determine the three (3) most important characteristics of an effective criminal investigator and discuss the importance of each characteristic you determined.
Support or critique the argument that the criminal investigation process should maintain the balance regarding freedom of information through media outlets and privacy rights of alleged perpetrators of crime. Provide a rationale to support your response.
Use at least two (2) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar type Websites do not qualify as academic resources.
Determine the fundamental positive and negative characteristics of a criminal investigator. Include at least two (2) examples from real life or stories from television and newspaper to support your response. Note: Some popular television shows to consider include CSI (Crime Scene Investigation) and CSI: Miami or CSI: New York.
However, regardless of how such inspections may prove positive to convicting people who have committed various sorts of crimes, criminal investigations do not necessarily yield correct outcomes.
Defining Criminal Investigation
Generally, an investigation consists of an evaluation, research, survey or study of details and circumstances, incidents, situations and scenarios for the sole purpose of gaining proof.
Hence, the criminal inspector must consistently implement those skills, typically gained through theory and practice, in order to conduct a rational and correct observation of the criminal, the resulting behavior and his or her environment.
Reasons Influencing Criminal Investigations
Normally, there are ways in which an individual may be delivered to justice in order to face the full extent of the law for a crime committed.