Patrick, C. J., Hicks, B. M., Nichol, P. E., & Krueger, R. F. (2007). A bifactor approach to modeling the structure of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. (2), 118-141. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.2.118 To date, models of the structure of psychopathy as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) have taken a higher-order approach in which the factors of the PCL-R are modeled as correlated elements of a higher-order psychopathy construct. Here, we propose an alternative structural model of the PCL-R, the bifactor model, which accounts for the covariance among PCL-R items in terms of a general factor reflecting the overlap across all items, and independent subfactors reflecting the unique coherency among particular groups of items. We present examples of how this alternative structural model can account for diverging associations between different subsets of PCL-R items and external criteria in the domains of personality and psychopathology, and we discuss implications of the bifactor model for future research on the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy.
Newman, J. P. (1998). Psychopathic behavior: An information processing perspective. In D. J. Cooke, R. D. Hare, & A. Forth (Eds.), (pp. 81-104). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
BOOK JACKET Separate paper covering for the book. Also referred to as the dust jacket or dustwrapper. A well-established practice among publishers as early as the middle of the nineteenth century.
It is possible to determine the grain direction (especially on thicker sheets) when a label is not present. Take a piece of paper and fold it both ways so that you have creases running in both directions. One crease should be smoother than the other – the smoother crease should be the grain direction of the paper.
Knowing M weights can be very helpful when comparing different grades of paper. The paper with the greater M weight is heavier and most likely thicker. For example, compare 8.5 x 11 90 lb. 21.62M Index to 8.5 x 11 80# 28.77M Cover. The M weight of the 80# is greater so it is most likely the thicker of the sheets.
ENDPAPERS (EP) The double leaves added to the book by the binder that become the pastedowns and free endpapers inside the front and rear covers. These pages are an integral part of the construction of a book, holding the text block and case together. The lack of them drastically shortens the value and life of a book, and should be considered a defect.
FAIR A book in very worn condition, but all of its important parts and dust jacket (if one was issued) must be present. May be soiled with tears, endpapers missing, etc. Such defects must be noted in descriptions. Also see our page of descriptive terms.
DUST JACKET or DUSTWRAPPER (DJ, DW) The separate paper covering for a book. While originally intended for protection (and sometimes originally made from cloth), these have become an important part of modern books, often including information about a book not found elsewhere and original art work designed specifically for the particular book. Jackets are often collectible and highly-desired in their own right and a book published with a jacket that no longer has one can, from a collector’s viewpoint especially, be considered “incomplete.”
It is used in plain or decorative finishes for interior walls and ceilings in thicknesses of 0.5 and 1 inch (in some cases up to 3 inches) and also as a water-repellent finish for house sheathing.
Jaspers (1923/1963) Distinguished between personality developments and disease processes. The former are assumed to lead to changes that can be understood from the individual's previous personality, whereas disease processes lead to changes that are not predictable from the inividual's premorbid status. These ideas led to Jaspers's influential proposal that conditions arising from diseases should be seen as categorical — either present or not (Livesley, 2001, p. 5).
Used between plies of a multi-part business form (see manifold form), where the tissue or carbon paper gives up a part of the carbonizing material upon a localized application of pressure, thus creating an image on the receiving (under) sheet.
Karpman, B. (1941/48). Distinguished between primary psychopaths and secondary "neurotic" psychopaths. Defined the variants of psychopathy to narrow the concept to include only primary psychopathy and to broaden the concept of neurosis to include neurotic secondary psychopathy. Secondary psychopaths' hostile, antisocial behavior was thought to reflect a character neurosis traceable to environmental causes, whereas that of the primary psychopath was thought to reflect the "instinctive emotional organization of a subhuman animal' which is rooted chiefly in constitutional deficits. Secondary psychopaths are capable of responding to psychotherapy because their behavior is based on an underlying conflict and they possess "the original capacity to absorb the elements of moral and ethical training" (p. 458). In contrast, according to Karpman, primary psychopaths are incurable and appropriate for indefinite institutionalization.
— All personality disorders face controversy in terms of classification. For example, should psychopathy be seen as a taxon (a category) or as an attribute (as a symptom), whether to view it as a dimension (with quantitative degrees of severity) or as a set of discrete types or, other? As an example of other, psychopathy may be seen as a neurophysiological disease/ brain disorder (Based on Millon 2012).