A paper with a relatively high opacity at 96% and above will have almost no show- through from printing on the reverse side or the sheet below. Selecting a paper with high opacity is specially important if the printing includes solid block of colors, bold type and heavy coverage.
Newspaper has its own stock type, Newsprint, that measures 24" x 36" in uncut size. This is much larger than the Bondand Cover uncut sizes, thus the most common 30lb Newsprint is actually a much thinner paper than 20lb bond. The followingpage covers the generally available.
The weight of a sheet of paper depends on the size of the sheet and the thickness of the paper, known as grammage internationallyand basis weight in North America. The tables below give the weights of sheets of the ISO 216 A paper sizes for various in grams in the first table and in ounces in the second table.
Thus if you have a sheet of 20lb Bond Letter paper it will be the exactly the same thickness as 20lb Bond Legal, although thetwo sheets will weigh different amounts because of the difference in size. However a sheet of 28lb Bond Letter size paper wouldnot be the same as a sheet of 28lb Cover Letter size paper as the uncut sizes for Bond and Cover aare different.
Hardness and Compressibility: Hardness is the property of paper that causes it to resist indentation by another material. Normally a soft cooked pulp will produce soft paper and vice-versa. Compressibility is defined as the reciprocal of the bulk modulus. It can be measured under static load by determining the change in caliper of the sheet under and expressing the results as a function of pressure.
Politely request an interview at the employer's convenience. Indicate what supplementary material is being sent under separate cover and offer to provide additional information (a portfolio, a writing sample, a sample publication, a dossier, an audition tape), and explain how it can be obtained. Thank the reader for his/her consideration and indicate that you are looking forward to hearing from him/her.
2. Search under a variety of subject headings when looking for sources in the physical or computerized card catalog, in an index, or any other finding aid. If, for example, you are doing a paper on Vietnam, do not limit yourself to looking under "V" for Vietnam. Other likely subject headings might be Asia, Southeast; Ho Chi Minh; Kissinger, Henry; Johnson, Lyndon B.; Nixon, Richard M.; U.S.-Foreign Relations; or U.S.-History.
- Disintegrating the paper in hot distilled water and determining the pH of the extract.- Disintegrating the paper in cold distilled water and determining the pH of the extract.
- Directly using a wet electrode on the paper surface.
In a U.S. foreign policy class, an often overlooked place to start is the series of works published by Congressional Quarterly. Weekly updates come in the form of the . Information on an annual basis comes out in the . Multiyear summaries called are available as well. These contain the basics of most U.S. foreign policy actions. Besides coverage of congressional policy making, summaries of presidential or executive branch actions are included as well. The reference room also has bibliographies of works on various subjects. These are classified under "Z." Check with the reference librarians. They may save you time.
Length: If you attempt to write a 10-page paper entitled "The President and Congress Struggle for Power: Two Centuries of Constitutional Conflict," then your paper is destined to be "a mile wide and an inch deep," as they say. It is better to do something more narrowly focused and to do it well than to give a superficial treatment of a large subject.
Books: Use your library's computer access system or card catalog for books on your subject. A good place to start is with the for ways to cross-reference your search for books. In the Library of Congress system, most U.S. history is under the letter E. For economics, look at H; for world history, consult books under D. Under H, the subsets of HC, HG, and HJ are particularly good for economics. The letter J encompasses most works on political science. As subsets, the letters JK focus on U.S. politics; JL, JN, and JQ cover other parts of the world; and JX covers international politics. Military affairs are under U. It is valuable to know these letters because sometimes it is worthwhile to simply go to the stacks where those letters are shelved and browse a bit to uncover resources that you may have missed in your computer or card catalog search. The shelves in the reference room are partly arranged using the Library of Congress system. Older books are also sometimes catalogued under the Dewey decimal system with the 300s and 900s of especial relevance to political science and history.
Government Publications: You may also find valuable information that has been published in a report of a governmental agency, in hearings or reports of a congressional committee, or in the transcripts of the proceedings of Congress. The United Nations and a number of other international organizations also publish proceedings and reports. There are several indexes available. The provides a comprehensive list of sources. The by the Congressional Information Service abstracts and indexes congressional hearings and reports. Debates and other proceedings of Congress are found in the daily At some schools, accessing government documents can be a challenge. See your reference librarians for help with government publications.
Basis weight is defined as the weight of a ream of the in pounds (lb) (Note: the # is often used in place of lb when referring to basis weights). The sizes being the size used inthe manufacturing process before the paper was cut to size. There are many different types of uncut paper, those in common usefor the production of office paper and card are , and . The word Stock is often dropped when referring to the different types of paper in their finished cut sizes.