The guidelines for the American Psychological Association Style (APA) format were first designed in the early 1900’s when a group of social science and business professionals determined that a streamlined system of style rules for headings, section numbering, margins, spacing, and documentation of references in scientific writing would make documents easier to read and understand. APA format is one of several types of editorial standard for formatting. It is most often used when the topic of the term paper or is one of a scientific nature or is required for those in the social sciences and it helps to ensure that information and content are presented in way that is organized and coherent to the reader. APA research paper format includes guidelines for the following:
There is a specific look to an APA format research paper and to make certain you adhere to the style guidelines, you should format your paper accordingly. Term papers, essays, and research papers require double spacing throughout and should be typed on paper that is 8.5” by 11”. Recommended font size is 12 pt and the margins throughout should be set to 1” on all sides.
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It is still debated whether urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites should be adjusted for creatinine () to correct for dilution. We did not use creatinine correction for the first 3 days because levels are elevated due to maternal contamination (). Thus, in our study, results from D1–3 were not included when analyzing data, which were creatinine corrected. Muscle mass in infants is extremely small, so creatinine-adjusted levels are extremely high. This should be kept in mind when comparing exposure levels in infants to those in older populations. During the first postnatal months, urinary dilution will show less variation due to a more consistent eating and sleeping pattern in newborns compared with older children. Creatinine correction may therefore not be as appropriate as in older populations.
Daily intake (DI), HQ, and HI estimates. Median estimated DIs of phthalate diesters from D7 to M14 are shown in (see Supplemental Material, Table S4, for corresponding numeric data). A constant estimated DI over time was observed for all phthalates, except a significant decrease of exposure to BBzP, DEHP, and DiNP in PT infants from D7 to M2–3. The median DIs of DEP, DiBP, and DnBP did not differ significantly between FT and PT infants over time. In contrast, median DIs of BBzP, DEHP, and DiNP concentrations were significantly higher in PT than in FT newborns from D7 to M2 (data not shown).
We used mixed-models analysis for statistical testing to account for the correlation structure because of the repeated measurements and multiple births in the cohort. We derived between- and within-group comparisons of phthalate metabolite concentrations, and estimated differences according to sex, hospitalization at the time of sampling (yes/no), breastfeeding (none, partial, or full), and child’s weight at sampling. Data were analyzed according to calendar age (i.e., time from birth) and, to account for the immaturity in the PT infants, according to PM age (defined as sum of gestational age at birth plus postnatal age at examination) categorized into intervals (30.1–34.0, 34.1–38.0, 38.1–42.0, 42.1–46.0, 46.1–50.0, 50.1–54.0, 54.1–58.0, 58.1–62.0, 62.1–68.5, and 96–106 PM weeks) corresponding to sampling times at D1–3, D7, M1–M6, and the corrected age of M14, respectively. Birth group (PT or FT), time point (or PM age category), sex, breastfeeding, hospitalization, and weight were modeled as fixed effects, whereas subject and an indicator for multiple births were modeled as random effects. Associations between the concentrations of different phthalate metabolites and estimated DI were also analyzed using the mixed model. We report standardized coefficients of natural log (ln)–transformed phthalate metabolite concentrations, which are interpreted as correlation coefficients. p-Values
If the direction goes more than four lines, place it at the left margin as regular direction, using a colon (:) to indicate it goes with the character's next speech. Incorrect
If CAMERA MOVEMENTS or SOUNDS (which should be capped) appear in parenthetical character direction, they should be "pulled out" and treated as regular direction: Incorrect
This section will contain information about the participants of your experimental study, the research design you have employed, the procedure underlying your experiment (or whatever it is you did to collect some qualitative or quantitative data) such as a brief information about the analysis method (for instance: a two- factor ANOVA) you have used to analyze the data collected. Materials or questionnaires that you have presented the participants should be referred to briefly and added to the Appendix section at the end of your paper, because it would interrupt the flow of reading if you inserted it here.
To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive longitudinal study of FT and PT infants from birth through 14 months of age, which documents a considerable exposure of all infants to multiple phthalates with an endocrine-disrupting potential. Our findings regarding estimated DI and accumulated HI raise concern. Most PT children and approximately one-third of FT children exceed the EFSA safety margin calculated for antiandrogenic effects, in particular shortly after birth. Such safety margins are estimated based on toxicological studies with rats defining exposure limits for either no observed effects or lowest dose with observed effect. Thus, our results raise concern because the observed phthalate exposures may put these infants at risk.