The definition meaning a “religion influenced by pre-Christian beliefs and practices of western Europe that supports the existence of supernatural power/ magic and both male and females deities who inherent in nature, and that highlights a ritual ceremony of seasonal and life.” In 1950, Gerald Gardner publicly introduced Wicca....
The focus of Christology is somewhat different depending on which theologian one reads, however one definition that seems to be accepted is that Christology and bible studies are "." It also focuses on the life of Jesus and once again asks the question, " This writer contends that some things in life must be accepted on faith and 'who Jesus is' is one of those things.
The terms we translate as “Trinity”(Latin: trinitas, Greek: trias) seem to have comeinto use only in the last two decades of the second century; but suchusage doesn't reflect trinitarian belief. These late second and thirdcentury authors use such terms not to refer to the one God, but ratherto refer to the plurality of the one God, together with his Son (onWord) and his Spirit. They profess a “trinity”, triad orthreesome, but not a triune or tripersonal God. Nor did they considerthese to be equally divine. A common strategy for defending monotheismin this period is to emphasize the unique divinity of the Father. ThusOrigen (ca. 186-255),
The discussions which arose on this subject were long and often furious. The Catholics had their most able and artful disputants present, such as the celebrated Eck. To the oft repeated cry, "The execution of the edict of Worms," was now added, "The abrogation of the edict of Spires." But the Reformers were firm and united, and they reasoned with great justice. At length, Ferdinand, who presided in the diet demanded with an imperious tone, the unconditional submission of the German princes to the decision of the Assembly. This was on the 19th of April, 1529. That simple act being disregarded by the papists, the Reformers presented on the following day, in writing, a second and more elaborate remonstrance, and appealed to the Emperor and a future council. On that account the Reformers received the designation of The Protestants. This is the origin of the term which is now used to denote all those numerous churches and sects which protest on principle against the doctrines, rites, and ceremonies of the church of Rome.
Many will argue that a cause of religion wars is for economic and political reasons, but others argue that those who start wars are, by definition, not religious.
17David G. Hamilton and Finlay A.J. Macdonald, eds. Children at the Table, (Edinburgh: The Department of Education, the Church of Scotland, 1982), 22.
18Charles Crawford, "Infant Communion: Past Tradition and Present Practice," Theological Studies 31:3 (1970): 524.
19J.H. Srawley, The Early History of the Liturgy (Cambridge: The University Press, 1949), 234.
20James B. Jordan, "Theses on Paedocommunion," The Geneva Papers 1982, Geneva Divinity School.
21Peter J. Leithart, Daddy, Why was I Excommunicated, (Niceville, Florida: Transfiguration Press, 1992), 41.
22G.W.H. Lampe, "The Eucharist in the Thought of the Early Church," in Eucharistic Theology Then and Now (London: S.P.C.K., 1968), 34.
24Douglas, s.v. "Cyprian," by D.F. Wright
Joseph Bingham, author of the ten volume work, Antiquities of the Christian Church, plainly states the terms by which the ancient church decided who would and who would not be invited to the Lord's Table when he wrote that those who "continued in heresy or schism... were of the number... to whom the church refused to give the sacrament, as persons not being in full communion with her. [However]... it is beyond dispute, that as she baptized infants, and gave them the unction of chrism with imposition of hands for confirmation, so she immediately admitted them to a participation of the eucharist, as soon as they were baptized, and ever after without exception." 11
Meanwhile the Reformer, in open defiance of the papal excommunication and the imperial edict, was going on steadily with his own proper work, preaching and writing, and Melancthon with his theology. It may be justly said of this period that "the word of God mightily grew and prevailed." Monks left their monasteries, and became active instruments in propagating the gospel; and Luther mentions, in a letter to Spalatin, the escape of nine nuns from their convents, among whom he speaks of Catherine von Bora, who afterwards became his wife. New services of worship were being gradually introduced into what were now termed Lutheran churches, but with great delicacy and tenderness. As a wise man, Luther exercised great patience towards those who were but creeping slowly out of the old system into the new. After his noble stand at Worms, he appears very little in what we may call the outworks of the Reformation. There he witnessed for God and His truth as few men have ever done. There is a grandeur and a moral sublimity in his position on that occasion which stands alone in his history. The true moral glory of the Reformation declines from that moment. The political element enters, and soon predominates. The outward aggressive action and the protection of the reformed churches fall into the hands of the temporal princes. This was the failure, the sad failure, the original sin, of the Reformers. But we shall see it more fully when we examine the epistle to Sardis.
The purpose of this essay is to answer the above questions by surveying the church's history from the post-apostolic age until the year 1500. My thesis is that the early church did indeed bring their infants and young children to the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. In order to prove my thesis, I will first examine what evidence can be gathered from secondary sources, such as church historians and scholars. Then I will determine whether the primary sources, such as church fathers and early church liturgical documents, have favored or disfavored the practice of paedocommunion. After discussing my thesis, I intend to show that the Western Church's abandonment of this practice grew out of superstitious heresies which stemmed from mistaken ideas of the transubstantiation of the elements of this sacrament. Then I will briefly review what relationship the Eastern Church has with this doctrine and why. Finally, I will discuss the attempt of the Hussites to restore infant and young child participation in the Lord's Supper at the Council of Basel in 1438.
In 1527 he was in Scotland once more, and not ashamed of the gospel of Christ. He proceeded to the family mansion of Kincavil, near Linlithgow, and preached the gospel to his kinsfolk and neighbours. Many of the nobility and the common people seem to have embraced the new religion. He next resolved to carry the gospel to the church of St. Michael's, Linlithgow, termed by historians "the Versailles of Scotland." The palace was also a fortress and a prison; it was the pleasure house to which the court used to retire for relaxation, and within its walls the unfortunate Mary Stuart was born. Here the young evangelist brought the gospel within the hearing of the priests of St. Michael's and the members of the royal family. The simplicity and elegance of his style were fitted to win the hearts of his hearers, but the gospel he preached did not suit the priests. He maintained that there was no salvation for the guilty but through the death of the Lord Jesus Christ, who died for the chief of sinners; and that it is the anointing of the Holy Spirit that replenishes the soul with grace, not the chrism of the church. He was denounced as a pestilent Lutheran to archbishop Beaton of St. Andrew's; and Beaton was too zealous a churchman to let Lutheranism escape with impunity.
The murder of the cardinal-primate was followed by results the most important. It removed from the head of affairs the most powerful and unscrupulous enemy of the Reformation, and the greatest defender of Romanism in Scotland. Like Wolsey, he was all but a king. His government was characterized by political intrigue, energy, and resolution; but his one main object was the persecution of the saints, the extinguishing of the Reformation, and the definitive triumph of Rome. But the work of God's Spirit needed not the assistance of the assassin. The christian life and martyrdom of Patrick Hamilton and George Wishart contributed far more powerfully to the advancement of the work of God in Scotland than the violent death of its enemy. The faith, the constancy, and the serenity of the martyrs, rose far above the ferocity of their persecutors, and through that instinct, which impels the human conscience to rise against injustice, and incline to the side of the oppressed, numbers were added to the ranks of the Reformed. One of the mistakes of the early Reformers, to which we have repeatedly referred, was their trusting to the protection of princes; but the Scotch Reformers had to learn through a long period of suffering that their strength lay in an arm mightier far than the kings of the earth, which alone could give victory to the weak and defenceless. Hence their great idea was and the motto on the banners of the Covenanters was,