The authors concluded that the failure to seeimproved treatment effects for the transfer, skills, and support group may have resultedfrom limited parental and child interest in completing out-of-session homeworkassignments, or from parents' potential inability to facilitate the learning of thetransfer skills (completion of the out-of-session assignments were not monitored).
Building upon the support group and skills training model of the DAP andCODIP interventions, Stolberg and Mahler (1994) compared the additive effects of each ofthree treatment components among children from 103 divorced and 26 nondivorced families:support, skills training, and transfer of skills to "real-life" situationsthrough workbook assignments for both parents and children.
Researchers now view conflict, rather than the divorce or residential schedule, as the single most critical determining factor in children's post-divorce adjustment.
There is evidence that participation in prevention programs leads to reductions in children’s post-divorce adjustment problems and increases in competencies. Program effects have occurred on a wide range of outcomes, including mental disorder, delinquency, behavior problems, self-esteem and grades. Community providers working with divorced families may wish to utilize these programs as part of their treatment to teach parents effective, non-coercive discipline strategies and ways to enhance the quality of their relationships with their children, and to teach children adaptive emotional expression and coping skills.
One of the problems that is common to children and adolescents of both genders is depression. The children start by being subjected to severe distress, which gradually evolves into depression. No marked differences relating to gender seem to have been identified in research on parental divorce during childhood and early adulthood. In terms of long-term consequences, the main issues to focus on as far as gender differences are concerned include psychological wellbeing, health behavior, life situation, social networks, interpersonal problems, and negative life events. On the basis of an assessment of these issues, Guidubaldi (1985) argues that boys are more likely to face more hardships relating to long-term adaptation than girls during adulthood because of exposure to divorce early on in their lives.
Often parents assume that after the remarriage "we will all live as one big happy family." Step family relationships need to be negotiated, expectations need to be expressed, roles need to be defined, realistic goals need to be set. Most teenagers (and their parents) eventually adjust to divorce and regard it as having been a constructive action, but one-third do not.
Thereare many ways thatchildren can cope with their parent's divorce to prevent long and shorttermeffects on them. There are different programs and counselingcenters thatchildren can get involved in to help them deal with the divorce. Childrenneed to know, that most of the time they themselves didn’t cause theirparentdivorce. Some children think they did cause it though and willbecomereally emotional. In order for this not to happen it is importantthatadults do something about it, and that is were the programs andcounseling canhelp.
In addition, children from divorced families have been overrepresented among delinquentsaccording to the self-reports of boys (Goldstein, 1984) and girls (Kalter, Riemer,Brickman, & Chen, 1985), and official delinquency statistics (Wadsworth, 1979).
Other stress factors are also brought into a child’s life when parentsgetdivorced. Stress can come from “moving and parental remarriage”(Amato2000). Moving to a different house can be very stressful,especially if achild has lived there their whole life. Considering the fact thatboththe mother and father of the child live in different places, the childis tornin between the two. It would be hard to decide where to leavewhat andalways pack while going from one house to another. They may feelasthough they do not have a certain place to live. When parentsremarry, itis usually very hard on the child. They feel like the new motherorfather is trying to take their actual mother or father’s place. This cancause hatred and drama in the new family. Especially when achild’sfather and new mother decide to have another baby, the child may feelthat thefather does not want him anymore.
The dyadic trust survey was originally measured on a 7 point Likert scale, however, for the purpose of this study the scale was shortened down to a 5 point Likert scale rating system. Answers ranged from never, almost never, occasionally, almost always to always (See Appendix A). The difference between this study and previous studies conducted by researchers such as Wallerstein and her peers was that this study sought to examine the level of trust across various intimate relationships including best friend, and parents, instead of just relationship partners. This study intended to determine how much the effects of parental divorce altered trust in other close relationships. However, despite the overwhelming evidence that parental divorce is detrimental to relationships, many studies seem to indicate that trust and negative attitudes in relationships were not evident until subjects were themselves in a marriage (Wallerstein & Lewis, 2004).
The majority of families remained married during this 11-year duration;however, a large minority experienced a parental separation before or during the course ofthe study, permitting investigators to examine the effects of age and divorce onchildren's short- and long-term functioning at home and school.
Recentstudies of this association concur that divorced children are at risk for externalizingproblems, particularly boys (Camera & Resnick, 1988; Forehand, McCombs, Wierson,Brody, & Fauber, 1990).