Besides the four basic levels of learning, educational psychologists have developed several additional levels. These classifications consider what is to be learned. Is it knowledge only, a change in attitude, a physical skill, or a combination of knowledge and skill? One of the more useful categorizations of learning objectives includes three domains: cognitive domain (knowledge), affective domain (attitudes, beliefs, and values), and psychomotor domain (physical skills). Each of the domains has a hierarchy of educational objectives.
This section briefly examines Vygotsky's analysis of the relationshipbetween learning and development, his concept of the zone of proximaldevelopment, and implications drawn from them for research oncollaborative learning. Vygotsky's analysis of spontaneous andscientific concepts is then examined, focusing on the centralroles in concept formation played by language and culture. Theintegrated influences of culture and language are then examinedin practical applications of sociocultural approaches to classroomlearning and teaching in literacy instruction. An additional andrelated theme highlighted in this section is the way socioculturaltheory helps educators provide instruction which recognizes andempowers linguistically and culturally diverse students.
Much of the recent psychological thinking and experimentationin education includes some facets of thecognitive theory. This is true in basic as well as moreadvanced training programs. Unlike behaviorism, thecognitive theory focuses on what is going on inside thestudent's mind. Learning is not just a change in behavior;it is a change in the way a student thinks, understands,or feels.
Major conclusions include that no one theoretical foundation exists for ID practice that is suitable for all applications. Dick and Carey's behaviorist model, Willis's constructivist model, Reigeluth's Elaboration Theory, Keller's ARCS model, Merrill's Instructional Transaction Theory, and Gagné's learning hierarchy illustrate the abundance of theoretical frameworks to assist designers in decision making. Theories continually evolve or are revised as a result of research or critique by designers or theorists in the field. In the long term a blending of behaviorist and cognitive approaches seems inevitable.
There are several branches of cognitive theory. Two ofthe major theories may broadly be classified as theinformation processing model and the social interactionmodel. The first says that the student's brain hasinternal structures which select and process incomingmaterial, store and retrieve it, use it to produce behavior,and receive and process feedback on the results.
learning process (behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist) and although each has The empiricist, or associationist, mindset provided the framework for many .
In a later stage science advances from the collection of rules or laws to larger systematic how behavior can be directly changed—for example, the nativist traditions of R.F.
Behaviorism, therefore, In an essay which appeared in The Behavior Analyst (1985).Behaviorism Vs Nativism Due to the complexity of language acquisition study, different points of view about this issue have been discussed to create several approaches.
Screen design is improved by chunking information (Stemler, 1997) into manageable segments, which is a metacognitive feature that helps to minimize learners' feelings of being overwhelmed by content (Jones et al., 1995). For consistency among screens, provide key information in prominent locations with critical information at the beginning of a message. Place questions and important messages in the middle of the screen. Limit the number of lines per screen and use no more than two or three font types and sizes. Use highlighting to focus attention. Left justify text, and mix upper and lower case letters for faster reading (Stemler, 1997). People read text about 28 percent slower and with lower comprehension from a computer screen than from print-based media (Orr et al., 1994; Thibodeau, 1997).
According to Gagné, Briggs, and Wager (1992), cognitive strategies such as rehearsal strategies, elaboration strategies, and comprehension monitoring strategies can be built into the interface. Gagné's nine events of learning serve well as the framework for ID (Stemler, 1997), particularly for instructional multimedia (Wild & Quinn, 1998). His events of instruction have served as the predominant micro theory (what is done and how) within the Dick and Carey macro systems design theory (Dick, 1997). Each externally observable event of instruction is associated with a corresponding internal process (Gagné et al., 1992) as follows:
Behaviorism (also called the behaviorist approach) was the primary paradigm in psychology between 1920 to 1950 and is based on a number of underlying assumptions.
Operant conditioning explains language acquisition and behavior (behavior controlled by consequences; power of reinforcement) The Nativist Interpretation.
The conceptualization of internalization as unidirectionaltransmission freezes the debate, in part, by distorting socioculturaltheorists' views of the roles of both teacher and student. Itdoes not recognize that the sociocultural theory of internalizationanalyzes the complex process of transmission, transformation,and synthesis in the co-construction of knowledge. As Leontievwrote, "the process of internalization is not the of an external activity to a preexisting internal 'plane ofconsciousness': it is the process in which this plane is formed"(Wertsch & Stone, 1985, p. 163). In classroom learning thestudent plays an active role and constantly informs the teacheras their mutual negotiation and collaboration build knowledge.