Sixty-two college students were interviewed and the relation between their attachment style, learning dispositions, and academic performance during the transition to college were evaluated.
As Wood stated, children suffering from RAD do not have a secure attachment style and do not freely explore their world, as they are afraid no one will be there for them. Larose, Bernier, and Tarabulsy (2004) set out to answer those questions.
Rather, children with RAD may exhibit symptoms of both types of the disorder. The ramifications of the inability of children with RAD to form normal attachments are best illustrated through the many maladaptive behaviors associated with the disorder.
In a number of works I have described the earliest ontogeny of these adaptive brain functions, and have argued that the essential events that allow for the emergence of the regulatory systems that control such functions occur during the brain growth spurt (Schore, 1994; 1996; 1997b, 1998a, b, 2000b, d). Moreover, I have offered data which suggests that the inceptive stages of development represent a maturational period of specifically the early maturing right brain, which dominant in the first three years of human life (Schore, 1994; Chiron et al., 1997). The right brain is centrally involved in not only processing social-emotional information, facilitating attachment functions, and regulating bodily and affective states (Schore, 1994, 1998a), but also in the control of vital functions supporting survival and enabling the organism to cope actively and passively with stress (Wittling & Schweiger, 1993).Furthermore, in a series of contributions I have proposed that the maturation of these adaptive right brain regulatory capacities is experience-dependent, and that this experience is embedded in the attachment relationship between the infant and primary caregiver (Schore, 1994; 1999b; 2000a, b; in press, c ). But it is important to point out that this experience can either positively or negatively influence the maturation of brain structure, and therefore the psychological development of the infant. This developmental psychoneurobiological model clearly suggests direct links between secure attachment, development of efficient right brain regulatory functions, and adaptive infant mental health, as well as between traumatic attachment, inefficient right brain regulatory function, and maladaptive infant mental health.
Such behaviors include stealing, lying, cruelty to animals and other people, avoidance of eye contact, indiscriminate affection with relative strangers and a refusal to express affection with family members, destruction of property, gorging of food, abnormal speech patterns, lack of remorse, impulsivity, inappropriate sexual behavior, role reversal, and overactivity (Kay Hall & Geher, 2003). Reactive attachment disorder is a relatively new disorder, having first been described in the , indicating a growing awareness of the negative effects of institutionalization and maltreatment in children and their psychological development (Richters & Volkmar, 1994).
Although often not obvious at first, the behavior of individuals with psychopathic traits frequently suggests that they are less impacted by emotional experiences than are others. Part of what makes this lack of emotional reactivity difficult to detect is that everyone displays emotion in different ways. Some people show emotion on their faces and in their voices; some respond with physical signs of arousal, and some do not. Moreover, although some individuals with psychopathic features may tell you directly that they do not care about other people, others will indicate that they are very upset upon learning that a friend or relative has experienced stress, failure, injury, or illness. However, there may be few signs that they are slowed down, preoccupied, or distracted by such events. In fact, some individuals with psychopathic traits will argue that interpersonal relationships are very important to them: they demonstrate their lack of attachment only through their actions, deceiving and hurting those who appear closest to them with little appreciation for the impact of their behavior on others. Moreover, when things go wrong, they are often adept at explaining the chain of events in a way that leaves them with no responsibility for negative outcomes.
Not only is there lack of adequate evidence base for social work interventions ( Geraldine Mcdonald, Bristol University 1997) but where there is good quality, relevant evidence in the medical literature of potential harm from their interventions, social workers are ignorant , or do not fully understand it, or feel free to substitute their own judgment without adequately balancing the two ( e.g. the work of Bowlby and others on attachment ,effects of stress in pregnancy, benefits of breastfeeding).
Yes Angelo I and I am sure other parents were prey to confirmation bias both from SW and experts. SW degrees are generalised, which has previously been criticised by Sir Martin Narey as is judicial training . So basically you have people making life changing decisions, by bandying words around that they don’t know the meaning of but sound good, but may have no particular relevance to the case in front of them.
I commented first on this article after seeing the term attachment parenting, I was interested as what was described was exactly how I parented my children as babies before the term was used, yet I am supposed to be a crap mother who’s children are not attached to her. All of this was of course explained to the child psychologist . I think the most relevant fact about the child psychologist in my case was that he was recommended by LA counsel as someone who would do the job.
In many other cases we saw children treated in many ways which damaged attachment, often unnecessarily, and without mention of, or apparent understanding, of the possibility severity of the price the child was likely to pay in later life. It sometimes seems as if the concept was something to be switched on and off in their reports, as it suited the case they wished to make.
Other psychobiological data may explicate the mechanisms that mediate attachment, the interactive regulation of biological synchronicity between organisms. Despite the intrinsic dyadic nature of the attachment concept, hardly any research has concurrently measured mother and infant in the process of interacting with each other. In one of the few studies of this kind, Kalin, Shelton and Lynn (1995) show that the intimate contact between the mother and her infant is mutually regulated by the reciprocal activation of their opiate systems - elevated levels of beta endorphins increase pleasure in both brains. It is established that opioids enhance play behavior (Schore, 1994) and that endorphins increase the firing of mesolimbic dopamine neurons (Yoshida et al., 1993).
Going back over them, carrying your baby in a sling, responding to their cry, long term breastfeeding , reading to them and co sleeping does not necessarily result in a secure attachment.
But even more importantly, Hoferis work as well as recent brain research calls for a return of the definition of symbiosis to its biological origins. The Oxford dictionary offers the derivation from the Greek, "living together," and defines symbiosis as an interaction between two dissimilar organisms living in close physical association, especially one in which each benefits the other (my italics). An even more basic definition from biological chemistry suggests that "symbiosis is an association between different organisms that leads to a reciprocal enhancement of their ability to survive" (Lee et al., 1997, p. 591). Recall Buckis (1994) description of an emotionally communicating dyad as "literally a biological unit," a conception that echoes Polan and Hoferis (1999) description of the dyad as a self-organizing regulatory system composed of mother and infant as a unit. These conceptions suggest that instances of secure attachment bonding are an example of biological symbiosis. Interestingly, the Oxford dictionary also defines symbiosis as "companion," which suggests that Trevarthenis concept refers to this same psychobiological phenomenon.