(However, M.I.T.'s Pantheon project, using the statistics ofon-line biographies, prepared a list of the Thirty-Five (or Eighty)Most Influential Persons in History; in addition to five (six) names alreadyon our list and Hart's -- Aristotle, Newton, Einstein, Galileo, Euclid (and Descartes) --their list includes four (seven) other mathematiciansmissing from Hart's list: Plato, Leonardo, Pythagoras, Archimedes(and Thales, Pascal, Ptolemy).
The King commissioned him to translate the works ofAristotle into French (with Oresme thus playing key roles inthe development of both French science and French language), andrewarded him by making him a Bishop.
He tried to explain all the phenomena from the point of view of logic; that is why he is called to represent rationalist trend of philosophy. As well as Plato, Aristotle became the foundation of the thought of Western World. The only fundamental difference between the philosophers and their thoughts is idealism of Plato and rationalism of Aristotle. All the further philosophers developed the ideas of the ancient philosophers relying on their texts. For example, the most famous texts of Aristotle are Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Poetics, etc.
Aristotle is one of the most famous and influential philosophers of all times, and the student has the chance to complete a detailed term paper about this great personality. The young person is supposed to read much literature about Aristotle and his ideas and achievements in order to realize the importance of the personality for the global philosophy. One can dwell on the explanation of the thoughts and concepts presented by Aristotle and illustrate his most famous works. The student is also able to compare Aristotle’s thoughts with the ideas of other ancient philosophers and evaluate his influence on the philosophy in the whole.
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Socrates wanted to replace vague opinions with clear ideas. He often questioned important Athenians and exposed their empty claims to knowledge and wisdom. This practice made him many enemies, and he was put to death as a danger to the state He thus became a symbol of the philosopher who pursued an argument wherever it led to arrive at the truth, no matter what the cost.
Socrates lived in Athens and taught in the streets, market place, and gymnasiums. He taught by a question-and-answer method. Socrates tried to get a definition or precise view of some abstract idea, such as knowledge, virtue, justice, or wisdom. He would use close, sharp questioning, constantly asking "What do you mean?" and "How do you know?" This procedure, called the Socratic method, became the model for philosophic methods that emphasize debate and discussion.
Despite Pythagoras' historical importance I may have ranked him too high:many results of the Pythagoreans weredue to his students; none of their writings survive; and whatis known is reported second-hand, and possiblyexaggerated, by Plato and others.
Aristotle, Plato's greatest pupil, wrote about almost every known subject of his day. He invented the idea of a science and of separate sciences, each having distinct principles and dealing with different subject matter. He wrote on such topics as physics, astronomy, psychology, biology, physiology, and anatomy. Aristotle also investigated what he called "first philosophy," later known as metaphysics.
Ancient Philosophy was almost entirely Greek. The greatest philosophers of the ancient world were three Greeks of the 400's and 300's B.C.--Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Their philosophy influenced all later Western culture Our ideas in the fields of metaphysics, science, logic, and ethics originated from their thought. A number of distinctive schools of philosophy also flourished in ancient Greece
In India, as in China, people conceived of philosophy as a way of life, not as a mere intellectual activity. The main aim of Indian philosophy was freedom from the suffering and tension caused by the body and the senses and by attachment to worldly things. The main philosophies developed in India were Hinduism and Buddhism, which were also religions. Yet some Indian philosophers did develop a complex system of logic and carried on investigations in epistemology. Some Indian philosophic ideas have been influential in the West. One such idea is reincarnation, the belief that the human soul is successively reborn in new bodies.
Aristotle created the earliest philosophic system. In his philosophy, all branches of inquiry and knowledge are parts of some overall system and connected by the same concepts and principles. Aristotle believed that all things in nature have some purpose According to his philosophy, the nature of each thing is determined by its purpose, and all things seek to fulfill their natures by carrying out these purposes.
For this reason Thales may belong on this list for hishistorical importance despite his relative lack ofmathematical achievements.)
The composed by Apastambha contains mensurationtechniques, novel geometric construction techniques, a method of elementaryalgebra, and what may be an early proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.