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Beneficence has played a major role in a central conceptual issueabout the nature and goals of medicine as a social practice. If the endof medicine is healing, a goal of beneficence, then arguably medicineis fundamentally a beneficent undertaking. If so, beneficence groundsand determines the professional obligations and virtues of thephysician. Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence isthe sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In thistheory, medical beneficence is oriented exclusively to theend of healing and not to any other form of benefit. The category ofmedical benefits does not, for Pellegrino, include items such asproviding fertility controls (unless for the prevention and maintenanceof health and bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, oractively helping a patient to effect a merciful death by the activehastening of death.
A more general and theoretical lecture will consider the concept of autonomy, as this value is so widely appealed to in this area. Students will be expected to read at least two papers for most topics, and to participate actively in the back-up seminar. Assessment will be by an two-hour examination, in which students will be expected to answer two questions. This final paper will offer a wide range of questions to choose from, but a question on each topic is not guaranteed.
This paper supports Kant's theory that though man may incorporate personal and sometimes selfish considerations into the process of ethical determinations, this does not negate the moral applications of these choices.
Other, 10%[Note: I have this category because I cannot foresee all possiblestrengths and weakness in papers, and I want to have room to, e.g., assignpoints to papers that are not only free of grammatical errors or stylisticinfelicities, but are particularly well written, or are very cleverly written,etc. ]
However, this problem has been replaced by another: Is it harmful orbeneficial to help a competent patient who has requested ahastened death? In addition to vexed questions about thepurported distinction between killing and letting die, the issuepresses the question of what counts as a benefit and what counts as aharm. Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefitfor some patients while a harm for other patients? When is it abenefit, and when a harm? Is the answer to this question determined bythe method used to bring about death--for example, withdrawal oftreatment by contrast to use of lethal medication?
This paper supports Taylor's reflections of the process of the individual within society, especially as he reflects on the issues for an individual within our technologically and bureacratically advanced society.
I believe these last moves by Warren offer a methodology with which a utilitarian framework can be created. Since I take utilitarianism to be a most understandable, practical, and defensible position, I encountered Warren’s work with great pleasure. The greatest objection I have always had towards utilitarianism has been its inability to account for human rights. But how, you may ask, can a utilitarian model account for moral rights such as liberty, justice, and equality when practical necessity dictates otherwise or the expected gain in the greatest happiness is sacrificed? Warren’s answer is that this is done based on a utilitarian argument that the “Agent’s Rights” principle has long-term social value and good. Thus, there are utilitarian reasons for adopting a non-classical utilitarian principle.
I need two essays done on ethics, I have put some of the assigned reading and all of the audio to go along with it. Please do not recycle old paper, I will be checking the for plagiarism through turn it in.
The paper presents Charles Norton's views on eudaimonism and outlines a process for the coming together of the bioscience and activist communities (cited example) in regards to animal testing.
Morality is considered as the basis for many of the arguments and the paper concludes that perhaps a compromise in treatment of animals in society can be reached.
In order to make a good ethical decision the professional will have to have the ability to apply knowledge of ethics, know the ethical terminology and the concepts needed in making a good ethical decision....
Many philosophers, as far back as Locke, would claim that a human being has rights, but that being human is not a necessary and sufficient condition for having personhood. Being human is a biological condition, being a human being or, more to use more exacting language, having personhood is a normative condition. The questions then becomes: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for moral status and how do they apply to the human embryo? I will address these questions in the subsequent sections of this paper.
“Human embryos are humans – and therefore, persons – and when an embryo is destroyed, a human life is extinguished? The underlying utilitarian belief that some humans need to be sacrificed for the betterment of others is morally and ethically wrong. The rationale used to justify the destruction of embryos for the advancements in medical research and development is the same used to justify the syphilis experiments conducted on African-Americans in Tuskeegee, Alabama? (and in the) medical research Nazi doctors performed in Dachau and Auschwitz.? We do not have the license to engage in lethal experimentation, just as we may not experiment on death row prisoners or harvest their organs without their consent.”