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Pulse code modulation provides only an approximation of the original analog signal, as shown in Figure 4. If the analog sound level is measured at a 4.86 level, for example, it would be converted to a five in pulse code modulation. This is called quantization error. Different audio applications define a different number of pulse code modulation levels so that this "error" is nearly undetectable by the human ear. The telephone network converts each voice sample to an eight-bit value (0-255) whereas music applications generally use 16-bit values (0-65,535) (Fries and Fries 2000; Rey 1983).
When the student is interested about the application of analog modulation techniques, he should study about such terms as modulation, its types, functions, methodology and then focus on analog modulation and its kinds. One is able to analyze the great number of techniques of analog modulation trying to understand their differences, strong and weak sides of every method observing their application on practice. The student can analyze the topic focusing on the definite cases demonstrating the actual use of analog modulation techniques, their variety, usefulness on practice. It is natural that the student should summarize the problem professionally and share his personal professional ideas about the techniques and methods of analog modulation.
The bit rate of uncompressed music can be easily calculated from the sampling rate (44.1 kHz), pulse code modulation resolution (16 bits), and number of sound channels (two) to be 1,411,200 bits per second. This would suggest that a one-minute audio file (uncompressed) would occupy 10.6 MB (1,411,200*60/8 = 10,584,000). Audio files are, in fact, made smaller by using a variety of compression techniques. One obvious method is to reduce the number of channels to one or to reduce the sampling rate, in some cases as low as 11 kHz. Other codecs use proprietary compression schemes. All of these solutions reduce the quality of the sound.