Also includes lists of English and European mills and their watermark symbols, a list of English papermakers, a photocopy of a British manuscript on papermaking, and indexes from autograph books.
Material from A Catalogue of Foreign Watermarks...(cont'd)16 Manuscript of A Catalogue of Foreign Watermarks Found on Paper Used in America, 1700-1835 F24 Draft, Part One F25 Draftt, Part Two F26 Watermark Photographs, pp.
Quite different seventeenth-century versions of the IHSwatermark occur on an Italian paper used for a Claude print (with acentral chain line crossing the mark) and on prints by Callot onFrench paper (with chain lines crossing the mark at left and right).
Voorn notes that the watermarks on large-sized papersare generally not represented in Dutch archives. Other paper historians such asHeawood and Churchi11 however did examine watermarks on printsand maps and thus can be more useful in studying watermarks in largeart papers.
We have found that we can study unpublished watermarks mostsuccessfully by assembling a body of related marks, for example, thewatermarks occurring in papers used by a single artist such asSchongauer.
Gravell Watermark Archive The database includes digital images of photographicreproductions of over 6,500 watermarks in paper made between 1400 and 1835 which form part of theThomas Gravell Watermark Collection at the University of Delaware Library.
What lies ahead for watermarks on the web? As social networks link more people in the book world, one can imagine user-uploaded content and user-generated tags providing more ways to search. Mosser pointed out, “One editor’s shield might be another’s post horn, for example, but being able to search a database for either or both those descriptors betters one’s chances of success.”
John Bidwell, the Astor Curator of Printed Books and Bindings at the Morgan Library & Museum, comments that it was an “inspired idea to put Gravell’s watermarks on the web in easily searchable form. Americanists will be particularly glad to know about Gravell and Miller’s watermarks, which will help them to date and localize manuscripts, printed books, and art on paper.”
But watermarks on large art papers mayfrequently not be published at all because some paper historianssuch as Briquet and Voorn have focussed their studies on manuscriptsin archives.
The cards also have a collection abbreviation and number in thebottom left-hand corner so they can be matched with the corresponding slide. Both the slides and the identification cards have an additional code, usually on the upperright, that indicates either the repository holding the watermarked sheet of paper, or the specificmanuscript collection within that repository.
Even if no watermark is present, othercharacteristic paper features may become evident such as chain lineintervals, laid line frequencies, or channeled texture. Illustrations in Briquet show the widevariation possible.
Another mark shows the letter "S" placed to one side of a circle;another symmetrically placed letter has apparently fallen off themold:If a researcher is fortunate and matches a watermark with anidentical published mark, then the date and place of use of thecited paper sheet can be used to infer a time period for the use ofthe paper mold which made both sheets.
While another Claude print lacks awatermark, it clearly shows the same channeled effect and is thus ona closely related paper. Channeled paper is also found on someSchongauer prints.
Specialist paper for the calotype and salt print processes was sold by R. Turner, Chafford Mill, and J. Whatman, Turkey Mill. Paper was also available pre-iodised and pre-sensitised. An advertisement for pre-sensitised paper states that it will keep for between 14 and 20 days.6 All of the chemicals required for the process were readily available and, where possible, prepared as ready-to-use solutions e.g. silver double iodide, aceto-nitrate of silver.