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Simulation of BPSK Modulation and Demodulation on System ..

There is one surprising aspect of the parallel FM equation. Since we can fiddle with the initial phases of the modulating signal's components,we can get very different spectra from modulating signals with the same magnitude spectrum. In the next two graphs, both cases involve amodulating signal made up of 6 equal amplitude harmonically related sinusoids, but the first uses all cosines, and the second uses aset of initial phases that minimizes the modulating signal's peak amplitude:

In the second case we just add together the two simple FM spectra, but in the first case we get a more complex mixture involving all the sums and differences of the modulating frequencies. These sum and difference tones ("intermodulation products") are not limited to FM. Anynonlinear synthesis technique produces them. Being non-linear, it must have something that involvesa power of its input other than 0 or 1; if we feed in sin a + sin b, for example, that term will producenot just (sin a)^n and (sin b)^n, but all sorts of stuff involving sin a * sin b (in various powers),and this produces things like cos(a+b) and cos(a-b).For a less impressionistic derivation of the spectrum, see Le Brun,"A Derivation of the Spectrum of FM with a Complex Modulating Wave". The result can be expressed:

FM signals can be generated using either direct or indirect frequency modulation.

and Demodulation on System Generator ..

“Modulation detection as a function of carrier frequency and level,” IPO Annual Progress Report 30, 21–29.



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There is not much we can do about band conditions that cause selective fading, phasing, noise or heterodyne. The best we can do here is to select our antennas wisely and just deal with the rest. On the receiver side, a well designed synchronous detector could be a great benefit since it only demodulates one sideband or the other, virtually cutting the QRM in half.

An FM signal can also be used to carry a signal: see . However, this is done by using and demultiplexing before and after the FM process, and is not part of FM proper. The rest of this article ignores the stereo multiplexing and demultiplexing process used in "stereo FM", and concentrates on the FM modulation and demodulation process, which is identical in stereo and mono processes.

Frequency Modulation (FM) - Center for Computer …

A high-efficiency radio-frequency can be used to transmit FM signals (and other constant-amplitude signals). For a given signal strength (measured at the receiver antenna), switching amplifiers use and typically cost less than a . This gives FM another advantage over other modulation schemes that require linear amplifiers, such as AM and QAM.

Frequency modulation can be regarded as a special case of  where the carrier phase modulation is the time integral of the FM modulating signal.

In frequency modulation we modulate the frequency — "modulation" here is just a latinate word for "change". Vibrato and glissando are frequency modulation. John Chowning tells me that he stumbled on FM when he sped up vibrato to the point that it was creating audible sidebands (perceived as a timbral change) rather than faster warbling (perceived as a frequency change). We can express this (the vibrato, not the neat story) as:

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An interferometer amplitude modulation reduction circuit ..


term represents an unwanted AM modulation term.

The distribution of a carrier modulated by a sine wave signal can be represented with - this provides a basis for a mathematical understanding of frequency modulation in the frequency domain.

Amplitude Modulation - Research Paper by Mollyboy007

where the c subscript stands for "carrier" and f(t) means "some arbitrary function added to the carrier". Since cos takes an angle as its argument, f(t) modulates (that is, changes) the angle passed to the cosine, hence the generic name "angle modulation". We can add that change either tothe argument to cos("phase modulation", ), or add it to the current phase, then take cos of that ("frequency modulation", ), soour formula can viewed either way. Since the angle is being incremented by the carrier frequency ineither case, the difference is between:

09/11/2009 · AM requires a carrier and a modulation ..

Dynamic radiation force has been used in several types of applications, and is performed by modulating ultrasound with different methods. By modulating ultrasound, energy can be transmitted to tissue, in this case a dynamic force to elicit a low frequency cyclic displacement to inspect the material properties of the tissue. In this paper, different types of modulation are explored including amplitude modulation (AM), double sideband suppressed carrier amplitude modulation AM, linear frequency modulation, and frequency-shift keying. Generalized theory is presented for computing the radiation force through the short-term time average of the energy density for these various types of modulation. Examples of modulation with different types of signals including sine waves, square waves, and triangle waves are shown. Using different modulating signals, multifrequency radiation force with different numbers of frequency components can be created, and can be used to characterize tissue mimicking materials and soft tissue. Results for characterization of gelatin phantoms using a method of vibrating an embedded sphere are presented. Different degrees of accuracy were achieved using different modulation techniques and modulating signals. Modulating ultrasound is a very flexible technique to produce radiation force with multiple frequency components that can be used for various applications.

In amplitude modulation, the angle term is held.

where is the highest modulating frequency of (). If , the modulation is called , and its bandwidth is approximately . If , the modulation is called and its bandwidth is approximately . While wideband FM uses more bandwidth, it can improve significantly.

Simplicity of modulation and demodulation is indeed the chief ..

N2 - Dynamic radiation force has been used in several types of applications, and is performed by modulating ultrasound with different methods. By modulating ultrasound, energy can be transmitted to tissue, in this case a dynamic force to elicit a low frequency cyclic displacement to inspect the material properties of the tissue. In this paper, different types of modulation are explored including amplitude modulation (AM), double sideband suppressed carrier amplitude modulation AM, linear frequency modulation, and frequency-shift keying. Generalized theory is presented for computing the radiation force through the short-term time average of the energy density for these various types of modulation. Examples of modulation with different types of signals including sine waves, square waves, and triangle waves are shown. Using different modulating signals, multifrequency radiation force with different numbers of frequency components can be created, and can be used to characterize tissue mimicking materials and soft tissue. Results for characterization of gelatin phantoms using a method of vibrating an embedded sphere are presented. Different degrees of accuracy were achieved using different modulation techniques and modulating signals. Modulating ultrasound is a very flexible technique to produce radiation force with multiple frequency components that can be used for various applications.

requires a wider signal bandwidth than amplitude modulation by an ..

With a tone-modulated FM wave, if the modulation frequency is held constant and the modulation index is increased, the (non-negligible) bandwidth of the FM signal increases, but the spacing between spectra stays the same; some spectral components decrease in strength as others increase. If the frequency deviation is held constant and the modulation frequency increased, the spacing between spectra increases.

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