Almost all of the research surrounding academic dishonesty has fallen into one of two dimensions. The majority of the research has focused on individual factors correlated with cheating. This research ends up painting a kind of offender profile by emphasizing the typical characteristics of those most likely to cheat. Below is a discussion of some of the characteristics linked to cheating and a review of some of the research results.
The various reasons that students give for cheating can also be instructive in obtaining a picture of academic dishonesty. Gleaned from a variety of sources, the list of student reasons for cheating given below is meant to be illustrative rather than exhaustive:
Sanctions to be imposed All breaches of academic dishonesty are to be reported to the AssociateDean of the Graduate School and to the designated graduate administratorof the department or chair of the appropriate graduate committee.
After this tour of some of the literature on academic honesty and dishonesty, the Center for Faculty Development would like to solicit your opinions about the situation here at MSU. Do we have a problem with cheating? What is the campus culture regarding academic integrity? Is academic dishonesty enough of a problem to warrant more attention by individual instructors and the institution at large? If this newsletter has prompted any questions or concerns about academic dishonesty at MSU, please forward them to the Center for Faculty Development, c/o Richard C. Schiming, Box 14. via campus mail, e-mail, or by voice-mail (389-5855). If there appears to be enough interest and concern, the Center may provide further information and programming to address this issue.
NOTE: The "Graduate School Statement on Academic Dishonesty" is the samein content and form as the "College of Arts and Sciences Statement onAcademic Dishonesty," with the exception of changes in wording of certainsections and additions to Section IV.
Academic Dishonesty: Applying Technology to Cheat Defined as any "theft of ideas and other forms of intellectual property whether they are published or not" (Jones, et al, 2001), academic dishonesty occurs often, usually in the form of cheating or plagiarizing....
Based on all these studies, what can we do to reduce the amount of academic dishonesty on college campuses? Two avenues are suggested by the literature: the classroom environment and the campus environment.
The second dimension of cheating has been an increased focus of study and recommendations in the literature. Many authorities believe that this second dimension carries as much explanatory power as the first dimension of individual but includes a much more powerful possibility for the effective deterrence of cheating. The overall academic climate at an institution can be critical. If the college or university can develop a sense of community, of shared intellectual purpose and excitement, then academic dishonesty will find it difficult to thrive in that environment. There must be some common sense of integrity that pervades the institution. Various authors who have examined this dimension have suggested strategies and techniques that can begin to build this sense of integrity and shared purpose. Some of these suggestions are:
Because of the efficiency of computers in detecting plagiarism cases, plagiarism tends to get the spotlight at the moment, but other kinds of academic integrity concerns have not gone away, and the increased attentiveness to plagiarism is unlikely to diminish concern with such offenses as smuggling notes into exams, text-messaging answers during exams, or having your roommate write your lab report for you.
Academic misconduct includes, but is not limited to, individual violations, helping another student with any form of academic misconduct, failing to report any form of academic misconduct, or intentionally interfering with the educational process in any manner. Faculty, staff or students who are aware of academic misconduct and fail to report it are considered complicit in these actions. The following sections provide representative examples of academic misconduct. If a student is in doubt as to whether an action or behavior is subject to the academic misconduct policy, he/she should consult an appropriate member of the Academic Integrity Council, faculty or staff.
The metaphors and social constructs provided by students in surveys can also provide insight into the rationale for academic dishonesty. In one recent study, students used the following metaphors for cheating:
In academics, cheating is the attempting or using of unauthorized learning materials in any given academic exercise or hiring another person to do an assignment on your behalf. Instances of cheating are inclusive of using sources without authorization, copying a classmate’s work, using an answer sheet to a test, submitting another student’s homework or obtaining an exact copy of an in-class test before the test date (McCabe et al, 2001). Cheating is highly discouraged in academics, stretching across multiple disciplines, with the engineering discipline inclusive. Scholars may involve themselves physically or through the internet, with plagiarism in mind for that matter. Cheating is highly discouraged and a sign of academic dishonesty. Thus, every scholar should be honest and committed to delivering the best they can; expecting worthwhile results and a just reward for their efforts in their studies, regardless of the discipline. The following explication espouses the seriousness of cheating in an engineering course; which is, apparently, a common phenomenon in academics.
The term "cheating" includes, but is not limited to: (1) the use of unauthorized assistance in taking quizzes, tests or examinations; (2) the use of sources beyond those authorized by the instructor in writing papers, preparing reports, solving problems, or carrying out other assignments; (3) the acquisition, without permission, of tests or other academic material belonging to a member of the College faculty or staff.