Abstracts are summaries written to give readers the gist of a term paper, report or presentation. Sometimes they are published in conference proceedings or databases. In some academic fields, you may be required to include an abstract in a report or as a preview of a presentation you plan to give at an academic or professional conference. Abstracts are brief, typically 100–200 words, sometimes even shorter. How to write a term paper abstract? Three common kinds of abstracts are informative abstracts, descriptive abstracts, and proposal abstracts.
Informative term paper abstracts state in one paragraph the essence of a whole paper. That one paragraph must mention all the main points or parts of the paper: a description of the study or project, its methods, the results, and the conclusions. Here is an example of the abstract accompanying a seven-page essay that appeared in 2002 in :
The relationship between boredom proneness and health-symptom reporting was examined. Undergraduate students (N = 200) completed the Boredom Proneness Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A multiple analysis of covariance indicated that individuals with high boredom-proneness total scores reported significantly higher ratings on all five sub-scales of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (Obsessive–Compulsive, Somatization, Anxiety, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Depression). The results suggest that boredom proneness may be an important element to consider when assessing symptom reporting. Implications for determining the effects of boredom proneness on psychological- and physical-health symptoms, as well as the application in clinical settings, are discussed.
If you have statements such as these, you have probably written an introduction and not an abstract: “One of the most important events in geologic history...”, The XYZ Formation is found in central Podunk County and is a fascinating unit.”, “However, before we examine these characteristics, we must look closer at the origins...”, etc..
The first sentence states the nature of the study being reported. The next summarizes the method used to investigate the problem, and the following one gives the results: students who, according to specific tests, are more likely to be bored are also more likely to have certain medical or psychological symptoms. The last two sentences indicate that the paper discusses those results and examines the conclusion and its implications.
To illustrate these guidelines, below are eight abstract conclusions taken from papers accepted for publication. In each case, we edited the original conclusion to provide a better citable statement.
6. Main conclusions (or hypothesized conclusions).
7. The implications or significance of the findings.
Use WhiteSmoke while writing an abstract. Its English grammar checker will catch any mistakes right away. Its contextual spell checking catches errors other softwares miss. WhiteSmoke writing software makes writing an abstract easier than ever.
An abstract is usually short, only one paragraph. It should never exceed the word limit provided by the journal or recommended research style manual (for instance, APA style or MLA style). Make sure it is:
This research looks at the work of Margaret C. Anderson, the editor of the Little Review. The review published first works by Sherwood Anderson, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, and Ezra Pound. This research draws upon mostly primary sources including memoirs, published letters, and a complete collection of the Little Review. Most prior research on Anderson focuses on her connection to the famous writers and personalities that she published and associated with. This focus undermines her role as the dominant creative force behind one of the most influential little magazines published in the 20th Century. This case example shows how little magazine publishing is arguably a literary art.
The conclusion does not explain what the current study found and talks unnecessarily about what future studies should accomplish. The main findings are probably buried in the results section of the abstract.
Summary: This handout provides detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and finding sources.
2.) Write a draft that follows the guidelines from number 1, above. Get feedback on the draft from colleagues, supervisors, teachers, etc.--someone who has not read the longer work. See what questions they have and ask them to explain to you what they expect from the longer work. This will help you to see if the abstract is doing its job. Use the English grammar checker while writing the draft and the writing enhancement feature that serves as a vocabulary check.
3.) Revise the abstract based on the feedback. Plan to revise often to get it right and to keep it within the word limit. Be sure to use the WhiteSmoke spell check and grammar check while revising. Also, this is a good time to use the powerful thesaurus to suggest more effective language and the large dictionary to make sure that you are using each word correctly.
4.) Be sure your abstract is grammatically correct with correct spelling and punctuation by using WhiteSmoke English grammar check and spell check one more time!
Because of these new findings, the purpose of this research paper is to discover the impact of early childhood violence prevention programs and if they would be successful in combating the issue of school violence.
If a sedimentologist, for example, were to read every paper published in a single year in the Journal of Sedimentary Research, Sedimentology, Sedimentary Geology, Geology, the GSA Bulletin, the AAPG Bulletin, etc.