Concrete termsrefer to objects or events that are available to the senses. [This is directly opposite toabstract terms, which name things that are notavailable to the senses.] Examples of concrete terms include spoon, table, velvet eyepatch, nose ring, sinus mask, green, hot, walking. Because these terms refer toobjects or events we can see or hear or feel or taste or smell, their meanings are prettystable. If you ask me what I mean by the word spoon, I can pick up a spoon andshow it to you. [I can't pick up a freedom and show it to you, or point to asmall democracy crawling along a window sill. I can measure sand and oxygen byweight and volume, but I can't collect a pound of responsibility or a liter of moraloutrage.]
While abstract terms like love change meaning with time and circumstances,concrete terms like spoon stay pretty much the same. Spoon and hotand puppy mean pretty much the same to you now as they did when you were four.
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If a sedimentologist, for example, were to read every paper published in a single year in the Journal of Sedimentary Research, Sedimentology, Sedimentary Geology, Geology, the GSA Bulletin, the AAPG Bulletin, etc.
An abstract must be a fully self-contained, capsule description of thepaper. It can't assume (or attempt to provoke) the reader into flipping throughlooking for an explanation of what is meant by some vague statement. It mustmake sense all by itself. Some points to consider include:
Examples of abstract terms include love, success, freedom, good, moral, democracy,and any -ism (chauvinism, Communism, feminism, racism, sexism). These terms arefairly common and familiar, and because we recognize them we may imagine that weunderstand thembut we really can't, because the meanings won't stay still.
The abstract may appear first as roughly one paragraph of text with unique requirements is. The introduction is next with more in-depth details about what the reader should expect in the upcoming text. The main body of the term paper may be roughly 5 pages which include main research points you have collected and analyzed. Your conclusion would follow next and summarizes your results or main findings behind research completed. References may follow that includes cited works in list form that may be 2 pages in length. If tables, graphs, charts, and pictures are included this would appear in the appendix section.
Because on-line search databases typically contain only abstracts, it isvital to write a complete but concise description of your work to enticepotential readers into obtaining a copy of the full paper. This articledescribes how to write a good computer architecture abstract for bothconference and journal papers. Writers should follow a checklist consisting of:motivation, problem statement, approach, results, and conclusions. Followingthis checklist should increase the chance of people taking the time to obtainand read your complete paper.
You may think you understand and agree with me when I say, "We all wantsuccess." But surely we don't all want the same things. Success means differentthings to each of us, and you can't be sure of what I mean by that abstract term. On theother hand, if I say "I want a gold Rolex on my wrist and a Mercedes in mydriveway," you know exactly what I mean (and you know whether you want the samethings or different things). Can you see that concrete terms are clearer and moreinteresting than abstract terms?
General terms and specific terms are not opposites, as abstract and concrete terms are;instead, they are the different ends of a range of terms. Generalterms refer to groups; specificterms refer to individualsbut there's room in between. Let's lookat an example.
Be concise. Don’t use three words where you can communicate the same idea in one. Don’t repeat information or go into too much detail. Don’t just cut and paste sentences from your research paper into your abstract; writing that is appropriate for long papers is often too complicated for abstracts. Read more about .