Beelen R, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Stafoggia M, Andersen ZJ, Weinmayr G, Hoffmann B, et al. 2014. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project. Lancet 383:785–795.
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Citation: Ostro B, Hu J, Goldberg D, Reynolds P, Hertz A, Bernstein L, Kleeman MJ. 2015. Associations of mortality with long-term exposures to fine and ultrafine particles, species and sources: results from the California Teachers Study cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:549–556;
In a previous study, we examined the relation between mortality and long-term exposure to constituents of PM2.5 using data from the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort (). Started in 1995, the CTS is a prospective study of > 130,000 current and former female teachers and administrators identified through the State Teachers Retirement System. Because of limited data on particle species, this earlier report relied on PM2.5 data collected and further analyzed by the U.S. EPA at eight fixed-site monitors as part of the Speciation Trends Network (). The 24-hr averaged measurements were usually obtained on an every third- or sixth-day basis. To minimize exposure misclassification, catchment buffer areas of 8 and 30 km were drawn around each monitor. The 30-km buffer is likely too large to capture exposure contrasts of many of the species, while the 8-km buffer significantly reduced the sample size, resulting in more unstable estimates and reduced statistical power. Although these buffers were an improvement over studies using a single or multiple monitors to represent exposure over large metropolitan areas, they may not sufficiently measure concentrations of many of the PM constituents, such as elemental carbon (EC) and transition metals that are known to exhibit high spatial variance. Specifically, , ) reported significant bias for several species of fine and UF particles when comparing the central-site monitor readings applied to the entire metropolitan area population versus our estimated population-weighted concentrations. The latter are derived as the product (both at the 4-km grid scale) of the population and our model-based estimates of the pollutants.
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