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Paper-making in the 19th century was affected by several issues.




The 50 Reichsmark features the portrait and watermark of 19th centuryPrussian politician and banker David Hansemann. The backfeatures a portrait of Mercury and two small children. Thedesign does not include a swastika. The note is dated March30, 1933, which is one week after Hitler assumed control overGermany.

The 20 Reichsmark note dated 1929 portrays Ernst WernerSiemens, the 19th centuryGerman industralist and inventor who founded the Siemens A.G.

IntroductionThis paper describes the investigation of, and the proposedconservation treatment for, a group of mid-19th century Frenchcarpet designs from the collection of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum(accession numbers 1954.23.1-40).

The Archive contains mainly Western European watermarked papers from the 13th Century ..

(early 19th Century) paper label c 1870 - c 1923:

the first several pages bearing a crown-like watermark similar to 19th-century German paper ..

Secret Symbols
Curiously, scholars who write about the Holy Grail, such as Margaret Starbird have turned to a 19th century Scottish scholar, Harold Bayley who theorized that watermarks were secret signs of pre-Reformation Protestant mystic or gnostic groups sects known in France as Albigeois and Vaudois and as Cathari or Patarini in Italy.

By the time that printing from moveable types is developed in 1450, the tradition of watermarking paper is already two centuries old (Hunter 1943, 261)
The term water mark is fairly modern.

cityzenart: 19th Century French Scenic Wallpapers

The poorer grades were made of old and discarded materials and yielded a light coffee color to light Grey.
Bleaching was not known unto the early 19th century (Hunter 1943, 225) so papermakers had to depend on using only fine fibers for the pulp.

Beautiful copy of a late 19th century German recipe book for decorated paper samples

As a result, the Bank of England eventually began printing the bills on paper with visible watermarks, although these were not manufactured until the nineteenth century.

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