On the left hand side of the Spilman tomb is a commemorative tablet erected by the Legal Society of Paper-Makers, who in 1858 paid £58 towards the tomb's restoration.
Some 37 paper mills existed in England between 1588 and 1650, most were involved with the production of inferior quality brown paper.
The mill seems to have been a prominent and impressive riverside feature:
This is so fine with workmanship set foorth
So surely built, and planted in the ground
That it doth seeme a house of some estate
To which brave mill do thousands still repayre
So see what things are wrought, by cunning skill,'
Churchyard's poem gives some indication of the paper making process employed at Dartford : A Paper-mill
That now neere Dartford standeth well
Where Spilman may himself and household dwell
The Mill itself is sure right rare to see
The framing is so quaint and finely done
Built of wood and hollowed trunks of trees
The Hammers thump and make so loud a noise
As fuller doth that beats his woollen cloth
In open show, then Sundry secret toyes
Make rotten rags to yield a thickened froth
There it is stamped and washed as white as snow
Then flung on frame and hanged to dry, I trow
Thus paper straight it is to write upon
As it were rubbed and smoothed with slicking stoneThe Dartford-based mill was granted extensive monopoly powers that were often the subject of dispute.
Cotton paper is made from cotton linters or cotton from used cloths 100 cotton paper without watermark (rags) as the primary material source, hence the name rag paper.
The range of textures in the Uno line is much less contrasted than in the Artistico. The Rough finish is noticeably less textured than the R finish in many other brands (compare, for example, to Arches, Whatman or Winsor & Newton). The tooth is extremely even, gappy but not very deep, and slightly lighter on the wire side; deckles are small, thin and irregular. Color is a medium white. The sizing is moderate; takes washes very well without exhausting the brush, with enhanced pigment texturing and a very slight banding of the cobalt pigment; and very gentle blossoming in the magenta areas. Resists came off cleanly without surface damage; scrubbing left no marks; the green did not lift completely and caused slight wicking at the edges of repainted areas. The Cold Pressed finish is again slightly less textured than the same finish in other brands. It has a subdued linen texture, similar to the wire side of the Artistico sheet, that is receptive to detail; the deckles are thin and very ragged. Color is a cool medium white. The sizing is slightly thin; the sheet took washes well without exhausting the brush, displayed the flocculation nicely but also caused banding in the cobalt pigment. The magenta blossomed slightly in the wash area. Resists came off with no damage; scrubbing left very faint streak marks easily masked by the ultramarine texture. The green lifted with effort but the scrubbing did not damage the paper or cause wicking when repainted. The Soft Pressed finish appears to be the CP texture run under a slightly higher pressure calendering; the wire sides of the SP and CP sheets are almost indistinguishable. I find little to choose between the two surfaces. The color is a cool grayed white. In most respects the paper behaves much like the CP finish, excepting that the magenta blossoms noticeably and the green only lifted with a lot of sluffing and visible damage to the surface, though repainted areas were discolored but did not wick at the edges. The Hot Pressed finish has a gentle eggshell texture, clean of fiber imperfections, with an irregular, ghostly blanket running across the felt side; the deckles are very thin, ragged, and characterful. Color is a bright medium white. The sizing is very good; there was little blotching or banding in the washes (for an HP sheet); but the magenta areas blossomed strongly. Resists lifted cleanly without damage. Scrubbing left visible marks; the green did not lift completely, caused sluffing, and left a noticeable discoloration under the repainted areas (but no wicking at the edges).
Buy Watermarked paper and Emblazoned directly into the fiber formation of the sheet while on the paper machine a watermark Southworth Resume 100% Cotton.
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(Hunter 1943,4) Before the 3rd century AD, the first paper was made of disintegrating cloth- bark of trees and vegetation such as mulberry, hemp, china grass (Hunter 1943,56)Paper was used in China from AD 868, for engraving religious pictures and reached its height of in 1634 with the wooden block prints made popular by Sung Ying-hsing.
The technology of making paper moved from China to Japan and then to Korea in AD 610 where it was commonly made from mulberry bark and Gampi.
After the foils, water is further removed using flat suction boxes. The suction boxes remove the majority of the water, changing the stock consistency from 2% to 20% fiber content. Above the first couple of suction boxes a skeleton roll covered with wire may ride on the top of the paper mat. This roll called a “dandy roll” compresses the paper, releasing any trapped air and improving the surface. The dandy roll can be covered with various wire patterns, which may simulate the forming wire and may have recessed or raised elements-designs imparting a watermark onto the paper. In areas where the watermark elements, usually a wire design, are above the surface of the dandy roll, fewer fibers are allowed to settle, and the paper appears light. If the watermark elements are below the dandy roll surface, more fibers are allowed to settle than in the rest of the paper, and the paper appears darker in these areas.
(Stutermeister 1954, 11)
There is a record of paper being used by the Empress Irene in Greece at the end of the 13th century, but with one doubtful exception, there are no extant Greek manuscripts on paper before the middle of the 13th century.
The Council Statute of 1436 prohibited anyone within a radius of 50 miles from Fabriano buildings from manufacturing paper or teaching paper making secrets to those not residing within the Council territory, pending a fine of 50 ducats.
A later prohibition has even stiffer penalties.